Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.03) - 1.1.8 to 1.1.19

Author Streamed Sunday September 26th, 2021

There are 18 episodes in the Live:Fundamentals series.

Streamed September 23rd, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.02) - 1.1.1 to 1.1.7

Streamed September 19th, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

From:Book 1, Part 1, Item 8to:Book 1, Part 1, Item 19of:Fundamentals of Catholic Dogmaby:Dr. Ludwig Ott


Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.03) - 1.1.8 to 1.1.19

Author Streamed September 12th, 2021

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okay we are live i am live i'm gonna pick up where i left off last we are after they call it book 1 section 2 chapter 2 the nature of in itself so book 1 section 2 chapter 2 the nature of god in itself that's what we're picking up the unity and trinity of god chapter 2 the nature of god in itself section 8 the biblical names of god as the nature of god cannot be adequately conceived in the mind it cannot be expressed in a perfectly corresponding name hence the fathers designate god as quote unnameable and quote nameless the manifold names which holy writ applies to god express more the operations than the nature of god according to the various operations god can be called by various names for which reasons pseudo-dionysius calls him there's some references given there if following sheban the seven holy names of the old testament may be divided into three groups first the first of which determines the relation of god to the world and to mankind then in parenthesis it gives examples l the god one of the names of god in the old testament el equals the strong the powerful elohim equals he who possesses the fullness of power very similar meaning adonai means lord commander or judge end of parenthesis the second group designates more the intrinsic perfections of god then in parenthesis we have examples shadai the mighty one and i think they forgot to close the parenthesis there but continuing on the third group comprehends the proper name i am the real name of the true god is yahweh it is linguistically derived from hawa a related form of hajje to be it means he is the septuagint renders the form ajay i am or asher ej the i am by which god designates himself by which god designates himself in exodus 3 14 by o the being one while it regularly paraphrases the form yahweh by the expression kyrios lord which was a current greek designation for god god himself revealed his name to moses when he in answer to the question as to his name replied quote i am who am aj asher aj quote you shall say to the children of israel he who is hath sent me to you the lord god of your fathers the god of abraham the god of isaac the god of jacob hath sent me to you this is my name forever and this is my memorial unto all generations end quote that from exodus 3 14 and following according to exodus 6 3 god himself revealed himself in the first instance to moses by his proper name of yahweh while he appeared to the preacher patriarchs as el shaddai the biblical narrator used the name yahweh for seeing the letter the later revelation even in the story of paradise and puts it into the history of the patriarchs even even into the mouths of the fathers and of god himself genesis 15 to in agreement with this genesis 4 26 quote this man began to call upon the name of the lord unquote is not to be understood as an invocation of the name of god in virtue of the use of the word yahweh but as a general adoration of god in the pre-mosaic era the name yahweh cannot with certainty be established either within or without israel the new testament takes over the old testament designations of god as found in the septuagint and makes the appellation father which occurs only in a few places in the old testament continuing section 9 the physical and metaphysical nature of god one the physical essence of god the physical essence of god is the totality of the divine perfections which are fully which are factually identical among themselves compare the enumeration of the divine attributes by the fourth lateran council and the vatican council and you can see interesting that they speak of a physical nature of god when god is not so the attributes of god are called physical in this book i'll have to understand how that's possible must be a technical sense of the word physical two the metaphysical nature of god the metaphysical nature of god is the basic determining factor of the divine essence according to our analogical conception it is the fundamental note of the deity which distinguishes it from all created things and which is the source and origin of all other divine perfections various opinions have been advanced on this point eight the nominalists wrongly place the metaphysical essence of god in the sum of all his perfections cumulus omnium perfectonium and thus equate the physical and the metaphysical b the scottish see the metaphysical essence of god in his radical infinity that is in that quality by which god possesses all perfections in infinite measure this view however leaves unsolved the question of the final basis of the of the infinity infinity is a mode of being only not the metaphysical essence itself c many thomas would find the metaphysical essence of god in his absolute intellectuality which they defined either as absolute spirituality against both opinions the objection is made that they do not give the ultimate root of all perfections but a characteristic derived therefrom absolute spirit being implies absolute intelligent subsistence presupposes essay subsistence d the opinion best founded in scripture and tradition is that the metaphysical essence of god consists ipsum essay subsistence as distinct from created things which have received being from another being essay participatum god has his being of himself and through himself by virtue of his own perfection of essence god is being itself the absolute being the subsisting being in god essence and existence coincide the concept of absolute being excludes all non-being and all merely potential being consequently god is pure act this opinion which follows the thomistic definition is held by many theologians who conceive the metaphysical lessons of god to be a sadie which however is not to be understood in the negative sense of not having been made or in being independent of a cause since this is only a mode of being but in the positive sense of so acidity is not to be understood in the negative sense of not having been made or in being independent of a cause since this is only a mode of being but rather a sadie is to be understood in the foundation a in exodus 3 14 and following god reveals his proper name and his essential name quote i am who i am end quote that is i am he whose essence is expressed in the words i am god is therefore purely and simply being his essence is being israel however did not yet grasp the full sense of the revelation vouchsafe to it it understood the nature of yahweh as he who is always the constant the true the helper as he had shown himself to be in the history of israel see for example israel isaiah 43 later scriptural texts express the absolute being of god by designating yahweh as the first and last as the alpha and omega the beginning and end he who is who was and who shall wisdom 13 1 calls god as does exodus 3 14 he who is that's where you get the word ontology ontological from anta from the greek and contrasts him with the visible things which have received being from him the characteristic of absolute the characteristic of absolute being expressed in the name yahweh distinguishes god from all non-living beings compare isaiah 42 8 quote i am the lord this is my name i will not give my glory to another nor my be the pre the patristic writers and the school men accept the name of the divine essence given in exodus 3 14 and regard absolute being as that concept by which we state the essence of god most fundamentally saint hilarious full of wonderment at the divine self-designation says excuse me quote nothing can be conceived which is more appropriate to god than being end quote saint gregory nanciensis remarks on exodus 3 14 quote god was always is and will always be or rather he is always for was and will be are divisions of our time and of nature which is in constant flow but he is the constant being and thus he called himself when he answered moses on the mountain and thus he called himself when he was answered on the mountain when he answered moses on the mountain he holds sealed off in himself the whole fullness of being which has neither a beginning nor an end like an endless and boundless ocean of being transcending every notion of time and created nature end quote saint augustine referring to exodus 3 14 says that god has called himself the very being ipsum he alone is the immutable being which is saint john damascene remarks that the name he who is o is the most appropriate of all the divine names saint bernard says one may quote one may call god good or great or blessed or wise or whatever one will all is contained in the phrase est he is end quote as only in god is essence one with existence he sees in the name he who is the appropriate proper name of god so i didn't give you the quote because it was in latin curious they okay so i'll say that again say thomas teaches quote as only god is essence one with existence he sees in the name he he who is the appropriate proper name of see the concept of ipsum essay subsistence in the positive sense fulfills all conditions necessary for the determination of the metaphysical essence of god d ipsum essay subsistence does not designate a mere mode of being but that perfection which according to our analogical thinking is fundamental to god and which is the summing up of his essence compare the proofs of god which proceed from essay participatum participated uh a b c d and now we're supposed to have e but they put beta for some reason continuing with these notes here ipsum essay subsistence distinguishes god fundamentally from all created things which only possess being but which are not being itself the being of created things is a limited being and in comparison with the being of god is more it is more non-being than being this is why i often say that i believe that uh i believe in the existence of god even above my own existence it's more credible it's more credible to believe in god and god's existence than to believe in myself my own existence continuing quote they cannot be compared with him because they are from him but compared with him they are not because the true being is an immutable being and that he is alone and that is he alone ipsum essay subsistence also distinguishes god from abstract or general being for the latter is of such a nature that it has not any objective reality any objective reality without the addition of further characteristics while the absolute divine being is such that nothing can be added to it abstract being is the poorest concept in point of content while absolute being is the richest compare saint thomas ipsum essay subsistence is the route from which all the other divine perfections may logically be derived as god is the absolute being he must contain in himself all the perfections and then a reference and citation is continuing now appendix hermann shell who died in 1906 sought to give the concept of the divine assailty a richer content by extending the idea of causa of causation to god and formulated the dictum deus este god his god is his own cause he claimed that a saiyadi is to be conceived as self-causation self-realization self-inauguration of the divine essence god according to him is not the fullness of being as the school man asserted but the fullness of activity and of life shell's concept of god which goes back to platonic and neoplatonic ideas contradicts the principle of causality according to which all that is moved must be moved by another thing as well as the principle of contradiction on which the principle of causality is based for an essence which causes itself must have been effective before its existence that is be and not be god is not causa but razio sui that is he has the reason of his existence in himself in a wider and improper sense following the precedent of saint jerome individual school men apply the concept causa to god saint augustine wrecked saint augustine rejected the idea of the divine self-origination and with it self-causation see his work on the holy trinity and that is latin there which is quoted as nothing is the cause of itself since that implies that it had existed prior very interesting principle of sufficient reason which says everything has its reason from another being or from itself and so the existence of god does not violate the psr the principle of sufficient reason now if the principle of sufficient causation were applied then god's existence would seem to be at odds with the principle of sufficient causation if we were to make a substitution of the notion of reason with this with the notion of causation but the principle of sufficient reason is called the principle of sufficient reason because the self-existent being whose essence is existence is uncaused so we can't speak of causality bringing about god we can speak about the reasons in god for his existence his self-existence that's a point that atheists don't seem to understand moving on now the unity and trinity of god section three so this is book one section three section ten the attributes of god in general one concept the attributes or properties of god are perfections which according to our analogical mode of thinking proceed from the metaphysical substance of god and belong to it hence we only know being in the we only know being of the absolutely simple divine substance in part see first corinthians 13 9 for example that is to say in a multiplicity in a multiplicity of inadequate concepts by which we know individual perfections of god truly but inadequately it's a very important two difference between the attributes and the essence of god this is a this is a dogma a de fide dogma the highest the divine attributes are really identical among themselves and with the divine essence this is a dogma i cite frequently in my discussions if you don't understand that then you will struggle to be to understand monotheism or classical continuing with the text the reason lies in the absolute simplicity of god the acceptance of a real distinction a distinctio realis would lead to acceptance of a composition in god and with that to a dissolution of the godhead in the year 1148 a synod at reems in the presence of pope eugene iii condemned on the insistence of saint bernard of clairvaux the doctrine of gilbert of poitiers who according to the accusation of his opponents posited a real distinction between the divine persons and their and paternitas and according to the accounts of his opponents also between the divine essence and the divine attributes this accusation can hardly be demonstrated from gilbert's writings against this doctrine the synod asserted the factual identity of god with the godhead head that is with the divine nature and the persons as well of as well as of god and his attributes the latin is given you can read it if you're able in english we believe and confess that the divine nature in itself is identical with god nor in any way consonant with catholic doctrine can we deny that the divinity is god and god is the we believe that god is wise by that wisdom which is god himself that god is great by that greatness which is god the union council of florence explained in the decretum pro jacobites quote in god all is one where an opposition of relation does not exist and we'll see later the relations in god i gave a in episode zero when i did the front matter in the back the back matter we have one god two generations three persons four relations this is to be found on page 68 of this book you've got the intellectual generation of the son from the father and the volitional spiration of the holy ghost from the father and the son the generation is uh there's an active and a passive generation and there's an active and a passive spiration so we'll see that when we get to page 68 right now we are on page continuing in the greek church the 14th century mystic quietistic sect of the hezzy castes or palamites so-called after the monk gregory palomas taught a real distinction between the divine essence usia and the divine efficacy or the divine divine energies i guess you could say in orthodoxy in my readings orthodoxy they emphasize this while the former was claimed to be unknowable the latter was claimed to be vouchsafe to humanity i guess that's the hesi casts isiah through an uncreated divine light called tabor light with this they distinguished a higher and a lower and invisible and a visible side of godhead holy scripture indicates the identity of the essence and the attributes of god when it says quote god is charity john 4 8 it's the principle of identity at work there god is charity the principle of equivalence matter is energy and god is charity quote what god has that he is end quote that from the city of god saint augustine gilbert's opponent summed up the ecclesiastical doctrine advanced against his error in the words attributed to saint augustine excuse me again the distinction is not a mere mental distinction as the eunomians in the fourth and fifth centuries and the nominalists in later medieval times taught according to the you know the eunomians all names and attributes of god are synonyms with express nothing other than agnesi in generatedness in which we apparently acquire adequately comprehend the essence of god according to the nominalists the distinguishing of several qualities has no basis in the divine essence itself but only in the various operations of against the acceptance of a mere logical distinction there is the fact that holy scripture refers to many of the attributes of god to explain these away as mere synonyms is incompatible with the dignity of holy writ again the perfections appearing in the works of god presuppose that god as their originator himself possesses them the perfections appearing in the works of god presuppose that god as their originator himself possesses them god is not good because he does good but he according to the scotists this is no c according to the scotus the difference between god and his attributes is formal distinctio formalis a formal difference lies between a real and a purely mental difference but the acceptance of the notion of various formalities of being which are present in god previous to and independent of our thinking is contrary to the absolute to the general teaching the different this is no d according to the general teaching the difference is to be conceived as a virtual difference distinct you over to alice or ratziones that's your note sive confundamento in re a virtual distinction a distinction of with a foundation in reality the distinguishing of many attributes in god has a factual basis in the infinite even if god's nature is in itself absolutely simple yet we can only know and then we're to compare that with something in the summa although the names attributed to god signify the same reality yet because they signify it under many and diverse aspects they are not synonymous end of parenthesis the assumed virtual difference is to be more exactly determined as distinctio virtualis minor since one divine perfection i'm going to need to reread all of this section and meditate on it because it's number three classification the divine attributes are classified into a negative and positive negative and positive okay so three classification the divine attributes are to be classified into a negative and positive they give as examples infinite and power infinite means not finite that's why it's a negative classification b incommunicable and communicable and as examples i give in generatedness excuse me c absolute and relative as examples they give holiness and d attributes of being and of being active also quiescent and active attributes and examples that give moving on now chapter one the attributes the absolute perfection of god that is perfect in which nothing is lacking which according to its nature it should reference to the summa that is absolutely perfect which unites in itself all possible excellences and excludes all deficiencies that is relatively perfect which has a finite nature and possesses all the here we have a dogma god is absolutely perfect this is a day fee day dogma the highest grade of certainty the vatican council teaches that god is compare matthew 5 48 quote be therefore perfect as your heavenly father is perfect end quote holy indirectly expresses the absolute perfection of god by stressing his self-sufficiency and his independence of all other see for example romans 11 34 and following isaiah 40 13 and following acts 17 24 and following and teaches that god contains in himself all perfections quote he is all pan obviously meaning all compare romans 11 36 psalm 93 9 the fathers base the absolute perfection of god on the infinite fullness of being of god they represent god's perfection as an essential universal perfection which transcends all perfection saint irenaeus says quote god is perfect in everything like unto himself all light all reason all essence and the source of all goodness end quote saint john of damascus teaches quote the divine essence is perfect he is in no way deficient in goodness in wisdom and in power it is without beginning without end eternal boundless in short absolutely perfect end quote and then a reference is given for a suit of dionysius if you want to look that up saint thomas bases the absolute perfection of god speculatively on the fact that god is the first cause of all created things virtually contains in himself all the perfections of the created and that he as the ipsum essay subsistence includes in himself eminently every being and thus every and then his reference to the summa in regard to the attribution of god of perfections which are in creatures the saying is valid the pure perfections are in god for formaliter and amin enter formal formally and eminently the mixed virtualiture and eminem eminenter virtually and eminently i'll read that again in regard to the attribution of in regard to the attribution to god of perfections which are in creatures the saying is valid the pure perfections are in god form formally and eminently the mixed that is infinite which has no end no bound compare the summa the finite is distinguished excuse me the infinite is distinguished according to potentiality and according to actuality the potentiality the potentially infinite can be multiplied infinitely but in reality it is finite and limited on account of the indefiniteness of the limits it is also called indefinitum further one distinguishes between the relative and the absolute infinite the former is infinite in a definite connection for example duration the so there's relative abs uh there's these notions come up when i discuss god with atheists here we have a dogma god is actually infinite in every perfection it's a de fidei god is actually infinite in every perfection so this actual infinity gets discussed it gets discussed uh when i debate atheists online the vatican council says of god that in reason and will and in every perfection compare psalm 146 5. quote of his wisdom there is no measure and unquote and psalm 144 3 quote of his the septuagint and the vulgate render that infinite the fathers call god infinite boundless according to gregory of nisa god is quote in every way without limit as he is quote according to his nature boundless he cannot be comprehended in a human concept speculatively the absolute infinity of god may be based on the concept of the ipsum essay subsistence as god does not originate from another being and as he is in no wise composed of parts there exists in him no basis for a limitation of his being there's a citation given for the zuma if you want to look that up that is simple which is not composed and the composition is a physical one when a thing is composed of parts which are really distinct from one another whether substantially material material and form body and soul or accidentally substance and accidents the composition is a metaphysical one when a thing is composed of logical or metaphysical parts for example determinations of beings such as potency and act or here we have a dogma god is absolutely simple this is a day feed a dogma god is the fourth ladder in council and the vatican council teach that god is an substantia natura simplex omnino the expression simplex omnino asserts that which are the expression simplex omnino asserts that with regard to god any kind of composition whether physical or from this it follows that one god is a pure spirit that is god is neither a body nor a composition of body and spirit the old testament it is true represents god in a visible human form by the employment of many anthropomorphisms and anthropo anthropopathisms rap above patricia's not sure i'm not familiar with that word pathisms i guess that's sympathies and stuff like that indirectly however it expresses god's spirituality by representing him as supreme over matter and as the ruler over matter the ruler of matter men in distinction to god are often called flesh the new testament designates god explicitly a spirit so we have john 4 24 quote god is a spirit and quote and ii corinthians 3 17 the viewpoint of the audience or anthropomorphists who in a false interpretation of genesis 1 26 held god to be a psychophysical being as men are was rejected by the fathers as a foolish heresy stuttissima heresies the most foolish of heresies says saint jerome tertullian under stoic influence and starting from the assumption that everything actual is corporeal corporeal ascribes to the spiritual essences to god and to the soul a certain corporality rumor has it that's what the mormons do so here we have some latin by tertullian and the english follow speculatively the immaterial speculatively i don't know i guess there's they don't give the english so it's just continuing the author is just continuing speculatively the immateriality of god is implied by his pure actuality since there existing god no potency and since for matter potentiality is essential there can therefore be no matter in god the reference is given to heavy reliance on saint thomas aquinas continuing with number two god is an absolutely simple spirit that is in god there is no composition of any kind of substance or accidents of essence and existence of nature and person of power and activity of passivity and activity of genus and specific difference holy writ indicates the absolute simplicity of god when it equates the essence of god with his attributes compare for example first john 4 8 quote god is charity or john 14 6 quote i am the way the truth and the life end quote saint augustine says of the divine nature quote it is called simple because it is that which it has except that which is said of one person in relation to the other and quote that excuse me speculatively the absolute simplicity of god may be derived from his pure actuality pure act is incompatible with any kind of composition for the composed thing comes later than the composing parts and is dependent on these further a composed thing presupposes an origin which brings the parts together and thus the parts are in potency to the whole the existence of the virtual differences between the essence and the attributes of god and between the attributes themselves does not controvert the absolute simplicity of god because the individual attributes do not designate parts of the divine essence but the whole divine essence this all merits a lot of deep one of the reasons i'm doing this reading laborious as it is and as crappy a reader as i am is because i can edit it in audio form and listen to it in the future to digest the parts that i'm interested in the parts that i find tricky and difficult so it's a worthwhile endeavor for me hope you're benefiting from it too some small way moving on now section 14 god's unicity here we have a dogma there is only one god this is a defeated dogma most of the symbols of the faith that is to say creeds most of the symbols of the faith expressly teach the unicity of god the nicene constantinople symbol declares credo in unum i believe in one god the fourth ladder in council 12 15 declares solos est verus deus the true god is one opposed to this basic christian dogma are heathen polytheism and gnostic manichaean dualism which posits which posits several it is a basic doctrine of the old testament and of the new testament revelation that there is only one god deuteronomy 6 4 and mark 12 29. quote hear o israel the lo the lord our god is one lord end quote saint paul the apostle of the heathens insistently stresses against heathen polytheism the necessity of belief in the one god first corinthians 8 4 quote we know that an idol is nothing in the world and that i hope my mother my muslim brothers and sisters understand that the heathen gods are not true gods i would have put a lowercase god on whenever i pluralize god i put a small g so i know it's the demons we're talking about the heathen gods are not true gods but lies and vanity see jeremiah 16 19 and nothingness see psalm 95 5. you can also compare wisdom 13 to 15. against the gnostic manichaean dualism which traces all evils in the world to an evil principle holy script teaches that natural evil or metaphysical imperfections originate from god's decree but that moral evil has its faces in the so i always emphasize that moral evil has its basis in the misuse of freedom you can see romans 5 12 for that you can just think about it and you can come to the same conclusion but this other notion that natural evil or metaphysical imperfections originate from god's decree i'm not sure i need to go and think about this because i'm not sure how god decrees natural evil but the other word they're using for natural evil is metaphysical metaphysical imperfection so i have a human nature that nature is good because god created it but are there metaphysical imperfections in my nature that we could call a natural evil this i need to look into because god cannot be the source of any evil the author of any evil including a natural evil or a metaphysical imperfection i'll have to uh find out what this book is teaching the father's the father's base god's unicity on his absolute perfection and on the unity of the world order and defend it against the heathens the gnostics and the manichaeans so the unity the unity of the world order i would just say this is uh we live in a well ordered cosmos that's what cosmos means is well ordered universe and the fact that it's well ordered allows us to do science i emphasize this with uh the atheists when i'm discussing uh god and science and these sorts of tertullian writes against martian quote that which shall be valid as the highest greatness that must stand unique and must have no equal in order not to cease to be the highest essence but as god is the supreme essence our ecclesiastical truth has with justice declared if god is not one then there is compare pastor and tertullian there are several references given here st john damascus saint thomas speculatively derives the unicity of god from his simplicity from the infinity of his perfections the reference references given to the summa there the history of comparative religion shows that religious development did not proceed from polytheism to monotheism but on the contrary from monotheism interesting that atheists don't like hearing that obviously you can compare romans 1 18 and following again it is not demonstrable that yahweh up to the time of the prophets was merely the national god of the people of israel so that in spite of the veneration of a single god the belief in the existence of several gods was firmly adhered to henotheism quote it is not the national god which has become a world god but the world god enter entered on sinai into a covenant of association with israel that from that citation from e celt biblical yeah we often hear about the henotheism of the uh of the jews or well they weren't jews at that time ostensibly catholic bibles with footnotes talking about that but many of the footnotes are well i mean none of the footnotes are protected they're not infallible footnotes so they're they're prone to error and they're they can be rife with uh false teachings section 15 excuse me one distinguishes an ontological a logical truth in being and knowing and saying in one god's ontological truth ontological truth or truth of things consists in the agreement of a thing with its idea it is the being of the things themselves insofar as it is noble being and truth are convertible terms ends at verum and here we have a dogma the one god is in the ontological sense the true god this is a defeat dogma the one god is in the ontological sense the true god the fourth lateran and the vatican council designate god as a true god deus verus because he alone fully corresponds to some references are given there if you want to look those up god as ipsum ese subsistence subsistent being aftalithia like i said earlier after after means this and alethia means truth this truth after god as exemplary and efficient cause gives all extra divine things the nobility together with their being every created thing is the realization of a divine idea which is which is imitated in the created spirit insofar as all actual and possible things reflect the being of god he is all truth panalithia panalithia all truth pan we think about many english words that start with pan means all panelia all truth alithea being truth as god's being is elevated over all creed all created being so also his truth or nobility transcends the truth or no ability of created things hyper truth iper means hyper supreme alithea means truth logical truth logical truth or truth of thought consists in the agreement of thought with things the perfection of the truth of cognition is dependent on the perfection of the intellect it's perfect the perfection of the truth of cognition is dependent on the perfection of the intellect and here we have another dogma god possesses an infinite power of cognition this is a day feed a dogma god possesses an infinite power of cognition according to the teaching of vatican council god is quote infinite in understanding end quote intellectual infinitus psalm 146 5. quote of his wisdom there is no end end quote other references are given the object of the divine knowing is the in this way god knows all created things in their origin because god is the origin of all creative things as in god the subject of cognition the object of cognition and the act of cognition are identical it follows that god is the absolute logical truth who cannot be conceived who excuse me who cannot be deceived three god's moral truth truth in speech and faithfulness veritas in agendo or fidelitas truth and action veracity is the agreement of speech with knowledge fidelity is agreement of action with here we have a dogma god is absolute veracity this is a de fite dogma god is absolute veracity the vatican council says of god that he infinite in every perfection holy scripture bears witness to the veracity of god and to the incompatibility of a lie with his essence john 8 26 quote he who has sent me is true end quote titus 1 2 quote god who lieth not and quote and hebrews 6 18 quote it is impossible for god to lie end quote compare romans 3 5 3 4 excuse me be god is absolutely faithful this is a dogma a defeat dogma god is absolutely psalm 144 13 quote the lord is faithful in all his works end quote ii timothy 2 timothy 2 13 quote if we believe not he continueth faithful he cannot deny himself end quote matthew 24 35 quote heaven and earth shall pass away but my words shall not pass and quote compare saint augustine analysis of the psalms divine truth can neither deceive nor be deceived that by saint augustine section 16 god's goodness god's ontological goodness number one god's ontological goodness as ontological truth is being in relation to intellect so ontological goodness is being in relation to will a thing is good in itself if it possesses the perfections corresponding to its nature relative good if it is suitable to good tends to communicate itself to god is absolute ontological goodness in himself and in relation to others god is the substantial good in parenthesis we have luke 18 19 quote none is good but god alone end quote creatures possess a derived communicated goodness only in parenthesis we have one timothy 4 4 quote for every creature of god is good and quote the absolute ontological goodness of god is the basis of his infinite bliss he's in knowing and loving himself as the supreme good he is infinitely blissful in the possession and enjoyment of himself meditate on that powerful powerful truth god is absolute ontological goodness in relation to others insofar as he is the exemplary efficient and final cause of all created things romans 11 36 quote four of him and by him and in him are all things end quote two the moral goodness holiness of god moral goodness or holiness consists in freedom from sin and the purity of moral behavior the ultimate basis of freedom from sin and of purity of morals lies in the agreement of the will and here we have a dogma god is absolute moral goodness or holiness this is a defeated dogma god is absolute moral goodness or holiness in holy mass the liturgy praises god as the holy one holy rape bears witness to the holiness of god both negative and positive deuteronomy 32 4 god is faithful and without any iniquity end quote psalm 5 5 psalm 5 5 quote thou art not a god that will list iniquity end quote psalm 76 14 quote thy way o god is in the holy place end quote isaiah 6 3 quote holy holy holy the lord god of hosts all the earth is full of his glory end quote the word holy kadash exempted from profanity expresses not only god's sublimity over all worldliness objective holiness but also his sublimity over all sinfulness subjective holiness as the comparison between god's holiness and the uncleanliness of the prophets uh i think the reference there is to isaiah 6 5-7 the two-fold repetition of the word means that god is in the highest grade the tremendous distance between the holiness of god and the sinfulness of man is demonstrated in the term used by isaiah and also in the psalms psalm 70 22 7 41 quote the holy one of israel end quote god is substantial holiness because his will is identical with the supreme moral norm the sinless sinlessness of god is therefore not merely a factual state of being free from sin impeccant but an intrinsic metaphysical impossibility of sinning three god's benninity benignitas here we have a dogma god is absolute benignity this is a defeated dogma god is absolute benignity god's benignity reveals itself in that he bestows on created things countless gifts in the natural and supernatural order and thus permits them to participate in his goodness examples are given creation preservation providence redemption sanctification and some references are given if you want to look those up appendix god's beauty god is absolute beauty this is not presented as a dogma it's just in the appendix but there's a reference given to denzinger if you want to look it up god unites in himself in the most perfect manner the three requisites which according to saint thomas belong to the concept of the beautiful a and integritas perfectio god is absolutely perfect god in spite of his infinite fullness of being is absolutely simple c claritas god as a pure and absolutely simple spirit is the clearest and brightest being his beauty is a substantial beauty which encompasses and infinitely transcends all the beauty of the created world according to wisdom 13 3-5 from the beauty of the creation one can conclude to the much greater beauty of the creator psalm 95 6 quote praise and beauty are before him holiness and majesty in his sanctuary and and some references are given there including from the confessions of saint augusta moving on section 17 god's immutability that is mutable which goes from one condition to another in consequence of the finite nature of its being every and here we have a dogma god is absolutely immutable this is a de fite the fourth ladder in council and the vatican council teaches that god is immutable in community tabulas incomitabilis holy scripture excludes all change and positively ascribes to him absolute immutability james 1 17 with whom there is no change nor shadow of alteration i quote psalm 101 27 and following quote they the heavens shall perish but thou remainest and all of them shall grow old and as a vestment thou shalt change them and they shall be changed but thou art always the self same and thy years shall not fail end quote a bunch of citations forgive me if you want to look those up malachi 3 6 indicates in the divine name of god the basis of the absolute immutability of god quote for i am the lord and i change not end quote life and activity are associated with god's immutability compare wisdom 7 24 27 saint augustine says quote god knows to act in restfulness and to rest in activity he knows to rest in god knows to act in restfulness and to rest in activity interesting that from the city of god great book by the fathers exclude all change from god tertullian stresses that the incarnation of the logos involved no change or mutation in god quote furthermore god must be held to be unchangeable and immutable because he is eternal and quote origen opposes the stoic opposes to the stoical teaching of god's corporality and his consequent mutability the christian teaching of god's absolute immutability for this he induces proof from the holy writ psalm 101 28 malachi 3 6. he also rejects the reproach reproach he also reject he also rejects the reproach by celsius that god's incarnation imply to change for the worse saint augustine drives god's immutability from his absolute plenitude of being which is expressed in the name yahweh quote being is a name which connotes immutability for all that changes ceases to be what it was and commences to be what it was not true being genuine being is possessed only by him who does not change end saint thomas bases the absolute immutability of god on his pure actuality on his absolute simplicity and on his infinite perfection mutability includes potentiality composition and imperfection and is thus irreconcilable with god as the actus purists the the absolutely simple and absolutely perfect essence summa theological 191 when god operates at extra outside of himself for example in the creation of the world he does not affect a new act but he enters on a new realization of the eternal resolve of his divine will the decree of creation is as eternal and immutable as the divine essence with which it is factually identical only its effect the created world is temporal and mutable compare with saint augustine city of god i think this is worth reading again because it came up recently in my refutations of the 500 so-called arguments against so saint thomas basically absolutely this is from saint thomas summer theological 191. i'm going to read it again when god operates ad extra that is to say outside of himself for example in the creation of the world he does not affect a new act but he enters on a new realization of the eternal resolve of his divine will the decree of creation is as eternal and immutable as the divine essence with which it is factually identical only its effect the created world is temporal fascinating stuff well worth meditating on at your leisure section 18 god's eternity eternity is a duration without beginning and without end without sooner and later uh quote permanent now end quote nunes stands the essence of eternity is the absolute lack of succession boethius gave the classical definition and the latin is there eternity is the perfect and simultaneous total possession of interminable life that's worth reading again eternity is the perfect and simultaneous total wow from eternity in the strict sense must be distinguished the evom or the evie ternitas that is the duration of the created spirits which have indeed a beginning but no end and which in their substance are subject to no mutation the angels this is talking about the created spirits i wonder if our souls are i wonder what the relation is between the human soul and the angels i'll get to that eventually there must be some overlap between our spiritual souls and the angels i'm not sure how much overlap here we have a document god is eternal this is a de fite dogma god is eternal the dogma asserts that god possesses the divine being without beginning and without end and without succession in a constant undivided now eternal father eternal son eternal holy ghost and yet not three eternal beings that's the translation of that latin the fourth lateran council and the vatican council attribute to god the predicate eternal paternus holy rit bears witness to the individual grounds of the divine eternity the negation of being and end is expressed in psalm 89 2. quote before the mountains were made or the earth and the world were formed from eternity to eternity thou art god end quote the absolute lack of succession is seen in psalm 2 7 quote the lord hath said to me thou art my son this day have i begotten thee end quote john 8 58 quote and references are given to psalm 101 27 and following psalm 89 4 and 2nd peter 3 8. if you want to look those up at your leisure the fathers in their conflict with the heathen world familiar with the genealogies of gods expressly attest god's eternity there they put gods in a small geo for gods the way i do it earlier in the same reading they had gods with the large g which i objected to so i'll start again father the fathers in their conflict with the heathen world familiar with the genealogy as of gods expressedly expressly attested god's eternity compare aristides and tatian eth and agoras ethenagras i guess they say saint irenaeus and saint augustine says that god's eternity is a constant present quote the eternity of god is his essence itself which has nothing mutable in it in it there is nothing past as if it were no longer nothing future as if it had not yet been in it there is there is only is that is moving on section 19 the immensity or immeasurability of god and his omnipresence immensity or spacelessness connotes the negation of spatial limitation omnipresence expresses the relation of god to real space immeasurability is a negative and absolute attribute omnipresence is a positive and one god's immensity god is immense or absolutely immeasurable this is a defeat a dogma god is immense for the symbol quick way teaches and the latin is given father immense sun emits holy spirit immense and yet not three immense beings but one has a familiar ring to it doesn't it the fourth ladder and council and the vatican council apply to god the attribute immeasurable he mensus holy writ bears with witness to the sublimity of god over all spatial measure the universe does not suffice to encompass him 3 kings 8 27 quote for if heaven and the quote for if heaven and the heavens of heavens cannot contain the how much less this house which i have built end quote and isaiah 66 1 quote heaven is my throne and the earth my footstool end quote compare job 11 7 and 9. the fathers called god incomprehensible whatever that is whoever that is quote for the very first thing believe that there is only one god who encompasses everything while he alone cannot be encompassed end quote compare anthonyrous saint irenaeus those references to there if you want to look them up at your leisure speculatively the immeasurability of god is to be based on his infinite fullness of being this permits no limitation including two god's omnipresence a reality of god's omnipresence here we have a dogma god is everywhere present in created space this is a day feed a dogma god is everywhere present in created space god's omnipre omnipresence is an object of regular and general teaching and is contained in the dogma of the infinity of god holy writ describes the omni presence of god in picturesque language in psalm 138 7 and following quote whither shall i go before thy spirit or whither shall i flee before thy face if i ascend to heaven thou art there if i descend into hell thou art present if i take my wings early in the morning and dwell in the uppermost parts of the sea even there also shall thy hand lead me and thy right hand shall hold me end quote jeremiah 23 24 quote i do i not fill heaven and earth saith the lord end quote acts 27 acts 17 27 and following quote god is not far from every one of us for in him we live and move and are end quote you can see deuteronomy 4 39 wisdom 724 from god's omnipresence saint clement of rome concludes to the fear of him quote where shall one flee and how shall one escape him who spans the all end see corinthians 28 4 compare of antioch minutius felix octavius saint cyprian you can look up those references if you feel like it the first monograph on the substantial presence of god in the whole world and in all the parts thereof and on the indwelling of god in the just was written by saint augustine in his liber de presencia de ad i have the complete works of saint augustine on my kindle one of these days i'll get around to reading all of it i've read the confessions the guardian and the city of god and parts of other works but he has a lot of books to get through hope to get through them in this lifetime st thomas speculatively bases the omnipresence of god on his all causality as the origin of being he is intrinsically present in everything b more exact determination of the ominous presence since the time of petrus lombardus peter lombard theologians more closely determine the omnic presence of god as a presence according to power dynamic presence according to knowledge ideal presence and according to essence essential or substantial presence through this essence he is present substantially in all things including the created spiritual essences angels demons and human souls so here we have the partial answer to my question there is an overlap between uh that exists among the angels the demons and the human so i'll start that phrase over again through his essence through this essence he is present substantially in all things including the cree including the created spiritual essences as the immediate origin of their existence the substantial omnipresence of god is to be more closely defined as a repletive presence that is the whole divine essence fills the whole created space and every one of its parts on account of the absolute simplicity of god however the repletive omnipresence must not be conceived of as an infinite extension expansion or diffusion of the divine substance so we have to be careful we don't make that mistake we have to remember the divine in addition to this general natural presence of god there is also a special supernatural presence or indwelling of god by the supernatural efficacy of his grace in the soul of the just man see john 14 23 first corinthians 3 16 and first corinthians 6 19 in the house of god and in heaven those references are psalm 131 13 and following and for god's presence in heaven matthew 6 9. the indwelling of god in the humanity of christ on the basis of the hypostatic union is unique see colossians 2 9 quote in him dwelleth all the fullness of the godhead corporately i will leave it there we are on chapter chapter 2 attributes of the divine life table of contents so we just did immensity or immeasurability of god and his omnipresence and now we're going to next time look at chapter two the attributes of the divine life so putting that into context that is book one chapter two so that's where we're going to start next time i think i just got an email from nick crisic so i'll probably have him on today hopefully uh if not i'll continue uh refuting the 500 arguments against atheism thanks for listening thanks for being here take care of yourselves you

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