Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.11) - 3.1.1 to 3.1.7

Author Streamed Sunday October 24th, 2021

There are 18 episodes in the Live:Fundamentals series.

Streamed September 23rd, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.02) - 1.1.1 to 1.1.7

Streamed September 19th, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

From:Book 3, Part 1, Item 1to:Book 3, Part 1, Item 7of:Fundamentals of Catholic Dogmaby:Dr. Ludwig Ott


Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.11) - 3.1.1 to 3.1.7

Author Streamed September 12th, 2021

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okay i'm live and i'm back again it's sunday didn't have time yesterday but we're continuing where i left off last time episode 10 i covered divine work of creation up until item 31 the efficacy of the bad angels and that ended book two now we're moving on to book stuff the doctrine of the divine part one the doctrine of the divine person of the redeemer excuse me the doctrine of the person of the redeemer and here we have a preliminary examination item one the historical existence of jesus christ the radical evangelical criticism of liberal protestant theology finally led to the denial of the historical existence of jesus by bruno bauer albert calthoff arthur drewes and others the historical existence of jesus is definitely attested not merely by christian but also by non-christian authors who in this matter from the historical point of view are number one pagan writers a tacitus in his annals about 116 relates the cruel persecution of the christians in rome by the emperor nero and incidentally makes the following comment on the originator of the christian religion tacitus says quote the author with a capital a the author whose name was christ was put to death by the pro-curator pontius pilate during the reign of tiberius end quote the reference is given there b sutonius reports about 120 that the emperor claudius expelled from rome the jews who were constantly causing tumults suetonius says quote judeos impulsory crestos end quote the reference is given this distorted report is based on the historic fact that there were intense disputes among the roman jews because of their different attitudes toward christ see acts 18 2 c pliny the younger proprietor in bithynia writes from 111 to 1 1380 in the letter to the emperor trajan that the christians quote on a subtle day assembled before dawn and sing a hymn of praise to christ as to a god end quote and there are plenty of younger uses a lowercase g for god presumably because he thought it was a d the syrian mara bar serapion an adherent of the stoic philosophy writes in a letter to his son superion about jesus saying quote or what had the jews from the execution of their wise king who at that time was taken away from them in the kingdom the jews were destroyed and undone and driven out of the realm and now live dispersed everywhere the wise king is not dead by virtue of the new law he has given end quote the letter was written after the year 70 second to fourth century a.d moving on now two jewish writers a the jewish writer flavius josephus mentions in his antiquities completed from 93 to 94 a.d that the high priest and an ananus ananas quote had the brother of jesus who was called christ named jacobus and some others accused of transgression of the laws and stoned and quote the reference is given clearer still but a very doubtful genuineness is another passage which says quote at this time jesus a wise man appeared if one may call him a man at all say that again quote at this time jesus a wise man appeared if one may call him a man at all for he was a worker of extraordinary deeds a teacher of men who joyfully accepted truth this was the christ christos oh cruz or christos ugos this was the christ and when pilate on the accusation of the chief men among us had punished him with the cross still those who at first loved him did not desert him for he reappeared alive to them on the third day indeed the prophets had foretold this and many other wonderful things about him up to today the race of christians who derive their name from him have not yet ceased to follow him and quote in the reference is given it is probable that this passage is basically authentic but it seems to have been embellished under christian influence the ancient slav version of the work quote de bello judaica end quote also by flavius jealousy this contains a testimony concerning christ which is in some respects similar to the foregoing in the greek and latin versions however it is missing that jesus was the leader excuse me in the greek and latin versions however it it is missing probably it is an interpolation the theory built up on this by robert eisler that jesus was the leader of a revolutionary national movement and as such had been executed by the roman civil authorities has not found favor b again the occasional mention of the person of jesus in the talmud presupposes his historical existence judaism indeed hateful indeed hatefully distorted the picture of christ by representing him as the son of an adulteress a traitor and the founder of a godless sect but it has never doubted his historical existence compare the talmudic tract babylonian sanhedrin and the references are given and saint justin and his dialogue or whatever that is so much for the preliminary examination we start section one the two natures in christ and the mode and manner of their chapter one the true divinity of christ item two the dogma of the true divinity one jesus christ is true god and true son of god this is a defeated dogma jesus christ is true god and true son of the church's belief in jesus christ's divinity and divine sonship is expressed in all the creeds compare the creed which says we believe and confess that our lord jesus christ is the son of god he is god and man he is god begotten of the substance of the father before all ages and man born in time of the substance of his mother he is perfect god and perfect man that's the end of that citation references are given the dogma asserts that jesus christ possesses an infinite divine nature with all its infinite perfections by virtue of his eternal generation from god the father two the heretical counter propositions christ's true divinity was denied in christian antique antiquity by carinthus or cyrenthus i never know how to pronounce c's the ebu knights the dynamic or adoption monarchists and the aryans and in modern times by the and in modern times by the sochinians by the rationalism of the enlightenment and by modern liberal theology god help them all see the doctrine on the trinity part one in opposition to the older rationalism modern liberal theology gives to christ the biblical names god and son of god but it has changed their meaning in a rationalistic sense according to it christ is not the son of god in a metaphysical but only in an ethical sense since the consciousness that god is our father has developed in him christ is the redeemer of the world because he communicated to man the unique knowledge of god which he himself experienced and revealed god as the good father as christ is not true god so he is not the object but only the subject of religion harnak declared quote not the son but the father only should be spoken of in the gospel as jesus has proclaimed it the saying i am the son of god has not been put by jesus himself in his gospel and he who puts it into it as an assertion side by side with others adds something to the gospel end quote the religio historical movement within liberal theology admits that the predicates god and son of god in holy writ are intended to be understood in their proper significance the early christians are regarded as having accepted this concept from the religious concepts of heathen religions apotheosis through the influence of the liberal theology modernism c a also denies the divinity of christ it distinguishes between the jesus of history who is merely man and the christ of faith whom christian piety has idealized and under the influence of heathen ideas exalted to item three the testimony of the old testament the old testament contains mere indications of the true godhead and divine sonship of the messiah the messianic prophecies describe the coming redeemer as a prophet deuteronomy 18 15 and 18 18 as a priest psalm 109 4 as a shepherd ezekiel 34 23 and following as king and lord psalm 2 44 psalm 2 uh what is that psalm 2 psalm 44 and psalm 109 i guess and zechariah 9 as a suffering servant of god isaiah 53 and designate him the son of god dominus dixit adme phillius meus s tu the lord hath said to me thou art my son this day i have begotten thee psalm 2 7 compare psalm 109 3. even if the title son of god was by reason of the rigid monotheism of the old covenant covenant understood only in a transferred ethical sense still one is justified in the light of the new testament revelation in regarding the eternal generation of the son from the father as being expressed therein yeah it's called irony this is the irony of god he's speaking to his audience and his audience knows more than the actors themselves this is the true sense of the word irony god has made use of irony throughout history even if the title son of god was by reason of the rigid monotheism of the old covenant understood only in a transferred ethical sense still one is justified in the light of the new testament revelation in regarding the eternal generation of the son from the father as being expressed therein compare hebrews 1 5. the divine dignity of the messiah is indicated by the appellations emmanuel which means god with us see isaiah 7 14 and 8 isaiah 8 8 wonderful counselor god the mighty the father of the world to come the prince of peace see isaiah 9 6 for that the attribute of eternity is predicated of the coming messiahs in which case however it must be noted that the biblical expression eternity may mean merely a long period of time compare micah 5 2 which says quote his going forth is from the beginning from the days of eternity end quote daniel 7 14 says quote his power is an everlasting power that shall not be taken away and his kingdom that shall not be destroyed item or the testimony of the synoptic gospels a the testimony of the heavenly father the baptism of jesus in the jordan a voice from heaven said quote this is my beloved son in whom i am well pleased and quote many biblical references are given there you can look those up at the transfiguration on tabor a voice from out of the clouds spoke saying quote this is my beloved son in whom i am well pleased hear ye him see matthew 17 5 mark 9 6 luke 9 35 and compare ii peter 1 17. at his baptism christ is inducted by his heavenly father into his messianic office and his divine sonship is attested by means of a solemn revelation to saint john in the transfiguration on tabor this divine attestation is repeated before the chief apostles the appellation son of god is used in the old testament for christ only the biblical expression beloved son is synonymous with only son compare genesis 22 2 and 12 and 16. i guess that means genesis 22 2 22 12 and 22-16 and also mark 12 6. the testimony of the heavenly father was understood at the time by saint john and the disciples simply as a divine assertion of the messianic mission of christ since their minds were not yet attuned to the concept of jesus consubstantial sonship with god in the early church however it is its true significance as an affirmation of the real divine sonship of jesus was recognized compare john 1 34 be the testimony of jesus one superiority over all creatures jesus knows himself to be sublime over all creatures men and angels he transcends the prophets and the kings of the old covenant jonas and solomon see matthew 12 41 and following luke 11 31 and following moses and elias see matthew 17 3 mark 9 4 luke 9 30. david who regards him as the lord as his lord see matthew 22 43 and following mark 12 36 and following and luke 20 42 unfollowing he is so great that the least in the kingdom of god established by him is greater than john the baptist who was the greatest of all those born up until then see matthew 11 11 and luke 7 28 the angels are his servants angels appear and minister to him matthew 4 11 mark 1 13 luke 4 13. he has but to ask the father and he will send him more than 12 legions of angels matthew 26 53 angels will accompany him at his second coming math matthew 16 27 mark 8 38 luke 9 26 and matthew 25 31 he will send them forth so that they may assemble the sinners and the just for judgment matthew 13 41 24 31 and ma mark 13 27 as son he stands above men and above angels matthew 24 36 and mark 13 32 2. assimilation to god jesus asserts of himself that which in the old testament is said of yahweh and thereby makes himself equal to god like yahweh he sends out prophets seers and doctors of the law see matthew 23 35 23 34 and luke 11 49 and gives to them the promise of his assistance luke 21 15 and compare exodus 4 15. like yahweh he is lord of the old testament law in his own perfection of power he completes and changes certain precepts of the old testament law see matthew 5 21 and following he's also lord of the sabbath matthew 12 8 mark 12 28 and luke 6 5. like yahweh he makes a covenant with man matthew 26 28 mark 14 24 and luke 22 20. as israel is the community of yahweh so his disciples are his community matthew 16 18. number three divine demands jesus imposes obligations on his disciples which none but god can impose on men of belief in his person and of a supreme degree of love directed those are the obligations imposed by jesus he blames the lack of faith in israel and praises the readiness to believe of the pagan peoples matthew 8 20 uh matthew 8 10 to 12 and matthew 15 28. he rewards faith matthew 8 13 matthew 9 2. but what what is this matthew 8 13 matthew 9 2 22 29 and matthew 15 28 and mark 10 52 luke 750 luke 17 19. and warns against faint heartedness matthew 16 8 17 20 21 21 mark 4 40. the demands for belief made by jesus refer to his own person he wishes to be himself the content and the object of faith compare luke 9 26 which says quote he that shall be ashamed of me and of my words of him the son of man shall be a saint shall be us shall be ashamed when he shall come in his majesty and that of his father and of the holy angels end quote matthew 11 6 says quote and blessed is he that shall not be scandalized in me end quote jesus demands of his disciples a love which surpasses all earthly love matthew 10 37 says quote he that loveth father or mother more than me he's not worthy of me he goes so far as to the end quote he goes so far as to demand the surrender of life for his sake matthew 10 39 luke 17 33 quote whosoever shall lose it shall preserve it end quote jesus accepts religious veneration by allowing him allowing to himself the veneration of the falling at the feet rendered proc procedures proskinesis which according to both jewish and christian conceptions is due to the true god alone many references are given there you can look those for your leisure number four jesus consciousness of power jesus is filled with a consciousness of superhuman power compare matthew 28 18 which says quote all power is given to me in heaven and on earth and quote he uses his power in numerous miracles and gives to his disciples the power of working miracles in his name that is in virtue of his commission and his power biblical references are given jesus also claims the power of forgiving sins which belongs to god alone and manifests by miracles his possession of this power again he transfers to his apostles the full power to forgive sins his uh again he transfers to his apostles the full power to forgive sins in the giving up of his life he sees an adequate means of atonement by which he merits the forgiveness of sins of all the human race so many biblical pastors in that paragraph you can look those up at your leisure jesus also appropriates to himself the office of judge of the world which according to the teaching of the old testament yahweh would exercise in his own person see the references for that matthew 16 27 says quote the son of man shall come in the glory of his father with his angels and then shall he render to every man according to his works end quote his judgment extends to every idle word matthew 12 36 his judgment is final and will be executed immediately matthew 25 46 says quote and these shall go into everlasting punishment but just into life everlasting and poetry the exercise of the office of judge of the world presupposes a being and a 5 jesus consciousness of being the son of god hey jesus claims to be the son of god jesus clearly distinguishes his divine sonship from that of his disciples when he speaks of his relation to his heavenly father he says my father when he speaks of the relation of his disciples to the heavenly father he says your father and when appropriate thy father never does he unite himself with them in the formula our father even in those assertions in which he speaks concurrently of himself and of his disciples compare matthew 25 34 26 29 luke 2 49 and 24 49 and john 2017 the our father prayer is not his own prayer but the prayer for his disciples see matthew 6 9 be jesus first revelation of himself as son of god in the temple the first revelation known to us of jesus unique consciousness of being the son of god was on the occasion of the finding of the twelve-year-old jesus in the temple to the reproachful question of his mother quote child why house why hast thou done this to us excuse me quote child why house thou done this behold thy father and i have sought the sorrowing end quote jesus answers quote how is it that ye sought me did you not know that i must be about my father's business and quote luke 2 49 while his mother exercises her natural mother rights jesus appeals to his child relationship with the heavenly father and to the higher duties arising from it his human son relationship must give place to his divine son relationship the antithesis demands that the latter as well as the former be conceived of in see the so-called johannine passage in the synoptic gospels the clearest testimony in the synoptic gospels to jesus consciousness of being the son of god and of his relation to the father is given in the so-called joanine passage matthew 11 27 and luke 10 22 which says quote all things are delivered to me by my father and no one knoweth who the son is but the father and who the father is but the son and to whom the son will all attempts to explain the passage as being holy or partly spurious collapse in face of definite manuscript evidence and patristic testimony for example saint justin saint irenaeus and julian in this passage jesus makes clear that he has received from the father the fullness of the truth of revelation and the fullness of the divine power for the fulfillment of his mission and thus shows himself to be immensely exalted over all prophets of the old in the words quote no one knoweth who the son is but the father end quote jesus asserts that his essence is so perfect that it can be comprehended only by the infinite divine knowledge of the father in the words quote and no one knoweth who the father is but the son and quote jesus implies that his knowledge is so perfect that it alone is capable of knowing the infinite divine essence of the father jesus thereby makes his knowledge equal to the divine knowledge only through the act of revelation by the son can we know the father in this revelation of the father the son is not bound as if he were an ordinary messenger but communicates his knowledge to whom he will he promulgates the divine truth of revelation side by side and conjointly with the father in fact the passage can be adequately understood only on the assumption that jesus shares the divine essence with the d jesus claimed to be messiah and son of god in the presence of the sanhedrin he dream the presence of the sanhedrin jesus solemnly testified to his messiahship and sonship of god before the sanhedrin the supreme jewish court of justice to the question put by the presiding high priest caiaphas quote i endure thee by the living god that thou dost tell us that thou tell us if thou be the christ the son of god end quote matthew 26 63 jesus answered clearly and definite and definitely quote thou has said it end quote matthew 26 64. i am he mark 14 that jesus in these words wish to designate himself not as a purely human messiah in the jewish theocratic sense but as god and consubstantial son of god is shown by the words which he added quote nevertheless i say to ye hereafter you shall see the son of man sitting at the right hand of the power that is to say the power of god and coming in the clouds of heaven end quote in jesus words the sanhedrists perceived a blasphemy against god deserving of death but having regard to jewish ideas it is clear that this blasphemy was not committed because jesus claimed to be the messiah but because they perceived that jesus as a man claimed to be god e the parable of the evil husbandman though the testimony of jesus through the just through the testimony of jesus light is shed on the parable of the evil husbandman in which jesus in view of his impending death and with obvious reference to himself says quote now he that is to say the lord of the vineyard having yet one son most dear to him he also sent him unto the lust unto them last of all saying they will receive they will reverence my son but the husband meant the husband men said to one another this is the heir come let us kill him and the inheritance shall be ours and laying hold of him they killed him and cast him out of the vineyard and quote in this parable the old testament prophets take the place of servants and jesus appears as the only beloved son of the lord of the vineyard and as the sole lawful heir in this there lies a clear indication of jesus consubstantial consubstantial sonship of god the testimony of jesus to himself is supported and strengthened by his miracles and prophecies by the holiness of his life and the sublimity of his teaching and by the fact that he went to his item 5 the testimony of the gospel of saint john the gospel of saint john is as the evangelist himself assures us written with the aim of demonstrating the messiahship of jesus and his sonship of god saint john says quote but these are written that you may believe that jesus is the christ the son of god and that believing you may have life in his name end quote that saint john had the consubstantial son of god in mind flows indubitably from the prologue in which he deals with the importance of the person and of the work of jesus the prologue begins with the description of the pre-existing logos who exists from all eternity and it an independent person side by side with god and who is himself god through whom all extra divine things have their being who is their source of eternal who is the source of eternal life and who spiritually enlightens mankind through his revelation the logos stands in the relation of sonship to god he is called quote the only begotten of the father end quote and as the only born god in the course of time the logos existing from all eternity entered the world by becoming flesh in order to bring grace and truth to humanity the logos made flesh is identical with the historical jesus christ in a letter excuse me in a later reference the evangelist repeats the designation of jesus as the only begotten son of god rendered in greek oh what is that whoa i don't know how to say that oh is that i don't know not sure i can't read that properly moving on the testimony of jesus in saint john's gospel one the sun more often than in the synoptic gospels jesus in the gospel of saint john calls more often than in the snapped gospels jesus okay more often than in the synoptic gospels jesus in the gospel of saint john calls god my father or the father and himself the son he expressly distinguishes his own sonship of god from that of his john 20 17 says quote go to my brethren and say to them i ascend to my father and to your father to my god and to your number two pre-existence with god jesus testifies that he was sent from that he came from heaven or from above that he proceeds from god or from the jesus thereby asserts his pre-existence with god by affirming his relation to god as sonship he asserts his pre-existence from all eternity there are many biblical references given if you want to look a on the occasion of the healing of the man who had been sick for 38 years john 5 1 and following jesus reveals an especially insistent manner his divinity and sonship of god see chapter 5 verses 17 to 30. he rejects the reproach of his transgression of the sabbath on the ground that quote my father worketh until now and i work end quote jesus claims therein for his work the full jesus claims therein for his for his work full equality with the work of the father as the sabbath rest does not hinder god from practicing his world conserving and world governing activity neither does the commandment of the sabbath hinder him jesus christ from performing the miraculous cure in the words of jesus the pharisees see expressed the identity of his substance with god and his substantial sonship of god quote for this reason the jews all the more sought after his life because not only did the trans did he transgress the sabbath but he also called god his own father that is from in the following passages jesus more minutely details a thought that his actions are in all things identical with the work works of the father he attributes to himself the divine in the sense of the spiritual supernatural communication of life and in the sense of the practice of the office of the judge at the general judgment and demands for himself the same divine honor that is due to the father and absolute belief in his words faith is the subjective precondition for the communication of eternal life and for the preservation from damnation at the judgment jesus in the course of the speech calls himself the son of god having regard to his claim that he is identical in substance with god this title can designate nothing else be similarly jesus reveals his unity of essence with god on the occasion of his controversy with the jews on the feast of the consecration of the temple jesus says i and the father are one the context makes it clear that he is not speaking here of a merely of a mere moral unity between jesus and the father nor of unity of person but of a physical or substantial unity they accused him of blasphemy of god quote for a good work we stone thee for a good work we stone thee not but for blasphemy and because that thou being a man maketh thyself god end quote jesus rejects the reproach of blasphemy of god and demands belief in him in virtue of the testimony of the father containing in the working of miracles contained in the working of miracles saying quote believe the works that ye may know and believe that the father is as a little side note when i was a generic monotheist sort of cautiously approaching christianity as a candidate for the true monotheist religion this was the passage that allowed me to accept jesus christ and the trinity the incarnation the whole christian teaching okay all the the christian faith based beliefs that can't be known by reason it was this passage believe the works that you may know and believe that the father is in me and i in the father so that allowed me as a generic monotheist who was very jealous of god meaning that i would want no partnerships with god just as the muslims don't want any partnership or sonship i was very jealous in that way of god jealous for god and so i appreciated jesus giving this option if i can't muster up the belief in him then at least believe that the father is working in him so that was that was a helpful stepping stone to embracing christianity and then of course i learned as i was categorized all of the teachings of the church and i came to believe obviously moving on now see in his solemn departure speech at the last supper jesus explains in more detail the concept of the mutual imminence and the mutual penetration of substance between the father and himself perichoresis circum in is that circum in chesium or circle and casio i don't know how to pronounce it i think i was pronouncing it circumcisio spelled with the c compare john 14 9-11 in his prayer as high priest jesus prays for the unity of the model of which is his unity of four divine attributes and demands jesus attributed divine qualities and activities to himself eternity for example john 8 58 says quote before abraham was i am that was another powerful one in my conversion because uh i knew god was the i am the subsistent being the full knowledge of the father references are given equal power and efficacy with the father all right it says forgiven the power of the forgiveness of sins john 8 11 which he also transfers to others the office of judge of the world the right to adoration he calls himself the light of the world and the way the truth and the life there are many references i'm not going to read them all jesus makes divine demands by demanding faith in his person john 14 1 says quote you believe in god believe also in me end quote any references there and a love for himself which manifests itself by keeping his commandments as a reward he promises a reciprocal love by himself and by the father his self-revelation and the indwelling of both in the soul saying quote and we will come to him and we will make our abode with him and quote that's john 14 23 this indwelling is an exclusive privilege of god he adjures his disciples to pray in his name to himself and to the father and assures them of a hearing john 14 13 and following john 16 23 following the solemn confession of the godhead by the apostle saint thomas which says quote my lord and my god end quote john 20 28 is accepted by the risen christ as an expression of the faith demanded by him five the testimony of the works of jesus his test the testimony of his works that is of his miracles must be added to the verbal testimony of jesus the miracles according to the conception of the fourth event evangelist are tokens by which the divine lordship dwelling in christ that is the divine power and majesty and with it his divine substance compare john 2 11 and 11 40. jesus frequently appeals to the testimony of his works and represents them as the motive for faith in him john 10 25 says quote the works that i do in the name of the name of the father they give testimony of me and quote compare john 5 36 10 37 and following 14 11 and 15 24. and here we have an appendix the testimony of the other joanine writings the testimony of the gospel of saint john is reinforced by the testimony of the other joanine writings of special importance is first john 5 20 which says quote and we know that the son of god is come and have given us understanding that we may know the true god and maybe in his true son this is the true god and life eternal end quote the last words that the last words are to be understood as referring to jesus christ may be seen from the following consideration a the demonstrative program the demonstrative pronoun this points to the nearest concept namely to jesus christ b if it referred to the true god that is god the father it would be a tautology see the assertion that jesus christ is eternal life is genuinely joan 9 compare john 1 2 5 11 and following john 1 4 11 25 14 6. but if the second assertion is to be related to jesus christ then also the former d the confession of the divinity of jesus christ is in complete harmony with the gospel 20 28 further important declarations concerning the person and work of christ are to be found in the following passages and you can look those up at your leisure item six the testimony of the pauline epistles one philippians 2 5-11 the clearest exposition of pauline christology is given in the dogmatically significant passage philippians 2 5-11 which says quote for let this mind be in who being in the form of god thought it not robbery to be equal with god but emptied himself taking the form of a servant and being made in the likeness of men and inhabit found as a man he humbled himself becoming obedient unto death even to death of the cross even to the death of the cross for which cause god also hath exalted him and hath given him a name which is above all names that in the name of jesus every knee should bow of those that are in heaven on earth and under the earth and that every tongue should confess that the lord jesus christ is in the glory of god the father end quote in this text the apostle distinguishes three different modes of existence of christ a first he was in the form of god b then he adopted then he adopted the form of a servant see finally he was elevated by god for his obedience and suffering over all created things so being created uh first he was in the being adopted in the form of a servant is rented in greek as morphine zulu lavon and finally his elevation to god for his obedience and suffering over all created things is rendered in part as que obeos afton e peripe the expression morphe was largely understood by the older commentators in the sense of the aristotelian murphy synonymous with usia essentiality but in the un philosophical language of the apostles it is more correctly to be taken as meaning external appearance which permits the essence of a thing to be known in the proper sense one cannot of course speak of a form of god but the expression is made intelligible by the antithesis the form of a servant the form of god coincides factually with the divine glory and majesty rendered in greek voxa which is predicable of the divine essence only and in which god reveals himself to mankind the mode of speech therefore in the form of god presupposes the possession of the divine essence in the form of god jesus possessed equality of being with being with god by which must be understood complete equality with god which comprehends the essence as well as the appearance usia and morphe excuse me the difficult expression are rendered i guess in latin rappina which in all holy occurs in this passage only is frequently interpreted by the fathers in the sense of the unlawful forcible taking to oneself for example of a thing which is appropriated in an illegal and violent manner accordingly they explain he did not regard the being equal to god as something which he had acquired or had to acquire in an unlawful forcible manner as he already possessed it however the antithesis but he humbled himself and the consideration that christ's attitude should be a model of selflessness for the community may demand the linguistically possible interpretation quote he regarded the being equal to god not as a thing which he should more or less selfishly retain end quote and here we have in the greek arpag moss and ar pagama meaning a thing which one eagerly seizes and retains an opportunity which one does not miss a find something welcome compare eusebius and his history of the church and there are other references given there you can look those up the kenosis or debasement consists in the renunciation in his human nature of the form of god that is to say the divine which like the divine essence belongs to the state of one who is completely equal and identical with god equal to and identical with god in no wise however does it signify the giving up of the divine essence or attributes the exchange of the form of god for that of a servant followed christ's incarnation for he who in his premundane existence was god in the form of god became in his incarnation god in the form of a servant also and you can see f tillman for more on that as a reward for his further self-abasement during his earthly life through his obedience even unto death on the cross god exalted him in his human nature over all created things by bestowing on him the yahweh name kyrios lord and divine or adoration and divine adoration from all creatures christ's human nature was assumed into the manifest divine glory which the logos enjoyed from eternity 2 the apostle saint paul gives further expression to his conviction of faith in the godhead of christ by directly calling him god theos a romans 9 5 says quote whose are the fathers and of whom is christ according to the flesh who is over all things god blessed forever and quote liberal theology separates verse 5b from 5a and construes it as an independent quote the god that is to say the father who is over all things be praised in eternity end quote however the evidence of this the evidence of the context is against this interpretation the expl the expression according to the flesh that is according to the human side demands completion compare the parallel assertion romans 1 3 and following a comparison with the other pauline doxologies which are as a rule the solemn conclusion of a thought and on that account also linguistically closely associated with the foregoing confirms this view and their references there you can compare if this were a doxology to the father it would be in saint paul's writings factually and linguistically unique the united the unanimous interpretation of the fathers refers the whole passage to christ b titus 2 13 says quote looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great god and our savior jesus christ end quote rendered in greek epis interesting the the designation god is to be understood as referring to christ not to god the father is indicated both by the linguistic form composition of the substantive theos and sothir under one single article and especially by the fact that the epiphany or parousies is always asserted of christ not of the father compare first timon first timothy 6 14 and 2 timothy 4 1 see hebrews 1 8 says quote but to the son god saith thy throne o god is forever and ever end quote that which is asserted of god in psalm 44 7 is transferred together with the address oh god to christ the son of god the nominative o theos instead of the vocative is a hebrewism according to the literal sense the words of the psalm refer to the israelite king the salutation o god may have occurred through a corruption of the text ji hey equals he will be and yahweh or ke elohim like god's throne the author of the letter to the hebrews however understands the words to refer in consonance with these assertions the apostle ascribes to jesus christ the entire fullness of the godhead colossians 2 9 says quote for in him dwelleth all the fullness of the godhead corporeally end quote against gnostic annoya doctrine which makes christ an eon emanating from an inferior to the emanating from an inferior to the father the apostles the apostle stresses that in christ the divine essence is continuously present with all its perfections compare colossians 1 19. three christ is called lord hellenistic speech usage applied to heathen gods who were the object of special veneration hellenistic speech usage applied to heathen gods who were the object of special veneration the religious title curios the roman emperors also adopted the title of kyrios and caused themselves to be shown divine honors among the jews kyrios as a rendering of the hebrew god names adonai and yahweh was applied to the one true god in the primitive christian community of jerusalem the glorified christ was according to the testimony of the acts of the apostles called curios in the religious sense the invocation of the name of the lord or of jesus was looked upon as the characteristic identifying mark of the christians see the book of acts 9 14 and 21 and 22 16. the dying saint stephen stephen prays quote saying quote lord jesus receive my soul lay not this sin to their church end quote acts 7 59 and following to the apostle saint paul the designation curios was tantamount to a confession of christ's godhead this is made particularly evident in that he transfers old testament curios passages which refer to jehovah to the curios jesus christus compare first corinthians 1 31 which says quote and that excuse me he that glorieth may glory in the lord end quote and romans 10 13 and following which says quote for whoever for whosoever shall call upon the name of the lord shall be saved and quote and then there are other biblical references given there christian teaching the one god is lord and the one lord is god and here for the pagan rendering we have lowercase g for god lowercase l for lord lord gods and lords and we have an uppercase g and l for god and lord as it should be compare origin and the reference is given the invocation of the name quote the lord jesus christ and quote is for saint paul the great bond of all christians see first corinth first corinthians 1 2 saint paul beseeches of the lord jesus christ in the same manner as of god the father grace peace and mercy for the faithful compare the opening passages of the epistles the aramaic prayer appeal marana tha come um our lord come points to the palestinian jewish christian origin of the title kyrios references here to first corinthians 16 22 and the decay 10 6 and compare apocalypse 22 20. for a ascription to jesus of divine qualities the apostle saint paul and the apostle saint paul further attests his belief in christ's divinity by ascribing to him divine attributes a omnipotence which is manifest in the creation of the world and the conservation of the world colossians 1 15 to 17 says quote all things were created by him and in him by him all things consist and quote first corinthians 8 6 says quote of whom are all things unquote hebrews 1 2 and following says quote by who also he made the world end quote upholding all um another quotation quote upholding all things by the word of his power and quote compare hebrews 1 10. be omniscience colossians 2 3 reads quote in whom are hid all treasures of wisdom and knowledge unquote see eternity colossians 1 15 says quote the firstborn of every creature end quote d immutability yesterday uh excuse me hebrews 1 12 says quote but thou art the self same end quote hebrews 13 8 says quote jesus christ yesterday and today the same forever end quote d adorability philippians 2 10 says quote that in the name of jesus every knee should bow and quote hebrews 1 6 says quote and let all the angels of god adore him end quote five christ's divine sonship the apostle saint paul defines a relationship of christ to god more closely as one of sonship in view of his other christological teaching this sonship must be conceived as a true and consubstantial sonship of god in many passages it is clearly indicated as such for example romans 8 3 says romans 8 32 says quote he that spared not his own son end quote rendered in greek to ethio not sure what that means colossians 1 13 says quote he hath translated us into the kingdom of the son of his love end quote rendered in greek to compare romans 1 3 and following son of david and son of god galatians 4 4 and following where paul saint paul contrasts christ's natural sonship of god with the sonship of god through grace which christ gives to redeemed humanity romans 8 29 christ the firstborn among many brethren and hebrews 1 6 firstborn of god the expression god and the father of our lord jesus christ is to be understood as corresponding to the concept of the son in the sense of a true fatherhood established by natural generation compare romans 15 6 2 corinthians 1 3 and ephesians 1 3. in the introduction to the epistle to the hebrews the exaltation of christ over the angels is founded on the fact that he is the son of god 1 4 says quote being made so much better than the angels as he had inherited a more excellent name than they end quote namely the son of god uh namely the name son as the son of god he is quote the brightness of his glory and the figure of his substance end quote that from chapter one verse three item 7 the testimony from tradition the oldest church tradition clearly attests its faith in jesus christ's godhead and his in his sonship of god founded on holy writ since the times of the apostles numerous murders have sealed with their blood their belief in jesus christ the true son of god the apostles creed designates jesus christ as the only son of god one the apostolic fathers a the dedicated acknowledges christ to be the god of david the son of god and in relation to the prophecy of isaiah concerning the passion the servant of god be saint clement of rome about 9680 constantly designates christ as the lord and in connection with the epistle to the hebrews he calls him quote mirror of the majesty of god by so much greater than the angels as the name which he has received surpasses them and quote and stresses his affiliation with the father corinthians 36 2-4 he says of him quote the scepter of the majesty of god our lord jesus christ did not appear in pomp and state although he might have but in humility end quote start from 16 2 an indication of his pre-existence with god and of his self-abasement in the incarnation christ is for him the object of religious veneration as the repeated doxology attests quote through our lord jesus christ to whom be honor and glory from eternity to eternity amen see among the apostolic fathers saint ignatius of antioch most clearly teaches about 107 a.d jesus christ's godhead and sonship of god he frequently calls christ god references are given he regards him as the creator of the world by referring to him the words quote he spoke and it is become end quote ephesians 15 1 and compare psalm 32 9 and genesis 1 3. in addition to the power of creation he ascribes to christ the divine attribute of omniscience see ephesians 15 3 pre-existence from all eternity and then a works cited here he says quote he who was with the father before time and who finally appeared unquote the equality of not being generated in time oh excuse me the quality of not being generated in time ephesians 7 2 of timelessness and dominion over time and the reference is given there he designates christ's relationship to god as a true the principal thoughts of the ignatian christology are summarized in his work i think it's ephesians i don't know what it would be called eph 7-2 quote the physician is one in flesh and spirit generated and ungenerated god appearing in flesh true life in flesh from mary as well as from god the first capable of suffering first excuse me first capable of suffering and then incapable of i'll say it again quote the physician is one in flesh and spirit generated and ungenerated god appearing in flesh true life in flesh from mary as well as from god first capable of suffering and then incapable of suffering jesus christ our lord d compare also the barnabas letters and and something from the martyrium of polycarp quote this one we adore because he is the son of god and quote two the early christian apologists christian apologists of the second and third centuries for example saint justin martyr theophilus of antioch saint hippolytus origin teach the pre-existence and the godhead of christ mainly by the application of the johannine concept of the logos but in the determination of the internal divine relation of the son to the father do not always keep themselves free from subordinate subordinationist tendencies aristides of athens about 140 a.d thus expresses himself concerning the christian belief quote the christians derive their origin from jesus christ the latter is called the son of the supreme god and it is said of him that he as god descended from heaven and took flesh of a hebrew version and adopted it to himself and so the son of god took up dwelling saint justin martyr about 150 a.d in his dialogue with the jew 48-108-80 supplies a detailed proof of the godhead and sonship of jesus christ from the writings of the old testament he says of christ that he the son of the creator of the world pre-existed as god and that he was born as a man of the maiden compare the universality of the belief in the godhead of christ in the later years of the early christian church is manifest in the creeds different references to tradition that you can look up there a testimony from monumental theology is the fish symbol used since the second compare the aberchios and the pectorius so i'm going to leave it there we're heading on to chapter 2 christ's true humanity the reality of christ's human nature we'll do that next time possibly today a little later today i'll do that so thanks for listening thanks for watching and take care of yourselves we watching and take care of yourselves we will talk very soon god bless

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