Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.16) - 3.3.1 to 3.3.6

Author Streamed Friday November 12th, 2021

There are 18 episodes in the Live:Fundamentals series.

Streamed September 23rd, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.02) - 1.1.1 to 1.1.7

Streamed September 19th, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

From:Book 3, Part 3, Item 1to:Book 3, Part 3, Item 6of:Fundamentals of Catholic Dogmaby:Dr. Ludwig Ott

Under Construction

Under Construction

These YouTube transcripts are generated automatically and are therefore unformatted and replete with errors.
okay i think i'm live i'm gonna pick up where i left off and let's see i won't do too much in this session because i think it's gonna wrap up pretty quickly this part three the mother of the redeemer item one reality of mary's motherhood of one the the nestorian heresy the denial of the true humanity of christ involves the denial of the true motherhood of mary and the denial of the divinity of christ logically also leads to the denial of mary's motherhood of god thus the nestorians refused to recognize mary's title theotokos which means mother of god and designated her by the names anthropotokos mother of man or christotokos mother of christ to the dogma mary is truly the mother of god this is a defeater dogma mary is truly the mother of god in the apostles creed the church professes her belief in the son of god quote born of the virgin mary unquote as the mother of the son of god mary is the mother of god the council of ephesus in 431 with saint cyril of alexandria declared against nestorius excuse me saying quote if anyone does not confess that the emmanuel that is christ is excuse me if anyone does not confess that the immanuel christ in truth is god and that on this account the holy mother the holy virgin is the mother of god theotokos since according to the flesh she brought forth the word of god made flesh let him be anathema end quote the subsequent general counsels repeated the dogma of mary's motherhood of god a mary is truly a mother that is she contributed she contributed everything to the formation of the human nature of christ that every other mother contributes to the formation of the fruit of her body b mary is truly the mother of god that is she conceived and bore the second person of the divinity not indeed according to the divine nature but according to the assumed human three proof from scripture and tradition scripture implicitly affirms that mary's scripture implicitly affirms mary's divine motherhood by attesting on the one hand the true divinity of christ and on the other hand mary's true motherhood thus mary is called mother of jesus see john 2 1. his mother biblical references are given mother of the lord luke 1 43 mary's true motherhood is clearly foretold by the prophet isaiah behold saying the prophet isaiah who says quote behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and his name shall be called emmanuel end quote that from isaiah 7 14 in similar words the angel transmits to mary the message quote behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb and shalt bring forth a son and thou shalt call his name jesus end quote that from luke 1 31 the motherhood of god is included in the words of saint luke which says quote the holy ghost shall come upon thee and the power of the most high shall overshadow thee and therefore also the holy ghost and oh excuse me and therefore also the holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the son of god end quote and in the words of galatians 4 4 which says quote god sent his son made of a woman end quote the woman who bore the son of god is the progenitors of god or the mother of god the fathers also teach mary's true motherhood of god not explicitly but implicitly saint ignatius of antioch says quote for our god jesus christ was carried in mary's womb according to god's resolve of salvation end quote from the seed of david it is true but by the holy ghost saint irenaeus says quote this christ who as logos of the father was with the father was born of a virgin end quote and the references are given the title theotokos became current after the third century it is attested to by origen an ostensibly earlier testimony of saint hippolytus of rome is probably an interpolation saint alexander of alexandria eusebius of caesarea saint athanasius saint epiphaneus by the cappadocians and others as well as by aries and apolloniaris of laodicea saint gregory nazianzus about the year 382 writes quote if anyone does not recognize the holy ma the holy mary as the mother of god he is separated from the divinity end quote and the reference is given the principal defender against nestorians or against nestorius of the marian title of honor is saint to the objection made by nestorius that mary is not the mother of god because from her was taken the human nature only but not the divine nature it is replied that not the nature as such but the person was conceived and born as mary conceived and bore the person of the god logos subsisting in human nature she is truly the mother of god thus the title of theotokos includes a confession of the divinity two item two mary's fullness of grace and her dignity deriving from her motherhood of god one marries objective dignity as the mother of god mary transcends in dignity all created persons angels and men because the dignity of a creature is the greater the nearer it is to god and of all the created things after the human nature of christ which is hypostatically united with the person of the logos mary is the nearest to the triune god as a true mother she is related by blood to the son of god according to his human nature through the sun she is associated intimately also with the father and the holy ghost the church honors her on account of her position as mother of god and on account of her high endowment with grace deriving from her position as daughter of the heavenly father and spouse of the holy ghost in a certain sense secundum quid mary's dignity is infinite since she is the mother of an infinite divine person and the reference is given to the suma in order to express the sublime dignity of the mother of god the church following the fathers applies many old testament literary passages in an accommodated sense for mary a passages from the psalms which depict the glory of the magnificence of the tent of the covenant of the temple and of the city of sion or zion references are given b passages from the sapiential books which refer to the divine wisdom wisdom and transfer to mary cedes sapiente or the seat of wisdom references are given for proverbs 8 22 and ecclesiasticus 11 23 and following see passages from the song of songs in which the bride is glorified for example chapter 4 verse 7 and transfer to the mary and transferred to mary the bride the fathers call mary on account of her sublime dignity lady and queen saint john damascene says quote verily she is in the proper and true sense the mother of god and the lady she rules over all creation and she is both made and the mother of the creator and quote the reference is given two mary's plenitude of grace a mary is full of grace pope pius xii and the encyclical mystique corporates 1943 says of the virgin mother of god quote her most holy soul more than the souls of all other of others of god's creatures was filled with the divine spirit of jesus christ end quote mary's plenitude of grace is declared in the greeting of the angel luke 1 28 says quote hail full of grace hail full of grace the lord is with thee unquote according to the context mary's special endowment with grace is an accompaniment of her vocation to be the mother of the messiah or the mother of god this vocation depends demands especially the fathers stressed the connection between mary's fullness of grace and her dignity as mother of god saint augustine having based her sinless sinlessness on her dignity as mother of god says quote whence then do we know with what excessive grace she was endowed in order to conquer sin in every regard who merited to conceive and to bear him of whom it is certain that he had no sin question mark end quote that from his work on nature and grace i think it's i think it's actually about free will and grace but i'm not sure saint thomas sees in mary's fullness of grace a verification of the axiom the nearer thing is to a principle the more it receives from the operation of that principle but of all creatures mary his mother stands nearest to christ who is the source of grace so of all creatures mary his mother stands nearest to christ who is the source of grace as god octori tative as man instrumentality consequently she duly received from him a supreme measure of grace but above all mary's vocation to be the mother of god demands for her the richest endowment with grace let's see this summa references given b limits to mary's fullness of grace the measure of grace of the mother of god falls as much short of christ's fullness of grace as the dignity of the mother of god falls short of the hypostatic union on the other hand the fullness of grace of the mother of god as much transcends the fullness of grace of even the highest angels and saints as the dignity of the mother of god surpasses the supernatural excellences of the angels and the saints but all possible supernatural excellences cannot be summarily derived from mary's fullness of grace there are no grounds for ascribing to the mother of god all the great gifts of grace possessed by adam and eve in the state of primitive innocence or the possession of the beatific vision during her earthly life or the gifts of self-consciousness and the use of reason from the first moments of her creation or a unique knowledge of the mysteries of faith or an extraordinary knowledge of profane things or even the infused knowledge of the angels that she did not possess the beatific vision is proved by luke 1 45 which says quote blessed art thou who has believed and and there's no place for faith if you have a beatific vision on the other hand it is consonant with the dignity of the mother of god that to her are attributed a high degree of supernatural knowledge of faith and after her conception of christ a special grace of mystical contemplation so when they say here that there is no use of reason for the first moment of our creation i've read saints who have attributed that to her and i personally it's neither here nor there i guess while christ's fullness of grace was perfect from the beginning the mother of god increased in grace and holiness up compare the summa and the references are chapter 2 the privileges of the mother of god item three marries immaculate conception one dogma mary was conceived without stain of original sin this is the defeat dogma mary was on the 8th of december 1854 pope pius ix in the bull in promulgated the following doctrine as revealed by god and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful he said quote the most holy virgin mary was in the first moment of her conception by a unique gift of grace and privilege of almighty god in view of the merits of jesus christ the redeemer of mankind preserved free from all stain of original sin end quote i'm sure we're all familiar with that proclamation explanation of the dogma a by conception is to be understood the passive conception the first moment of the conception is that moment of time in which the soul was created by god and infused into the bodily matter prepared by her parents be the essence of original sin consists formality in the lack of sanctifying grace in consequence of the fall of adam mary was preserved from this defect so that she entered existence in the state of sanctifying grace see mary's freedom from original sin was an unmerited gift of god gratia and an exception from the law privilegium which was vouchsafe to her only to her only singulari d the efficient cause cause efficience of the immaculate conception of mary was e the meritorious cause causa meritoria was the redemption by jesus christ it follows from this that even mary was in need of redemption and was in fact redeemed by reason of her natural origin she like all other children of adam was subject to the necessity of contracting original but by a special intervention of god she was preserved from staying of original sin thus mary also was redeemed by the grace of christ but in a more perfect manner than all i'll say that again thus mary also was redeemed by the grace of christ but in a more perfect manner than other human beings while these are freed from original sin present in their souls redemption mary the mother of the redeemer was preserved from the contagion of original sin thus the dogma of the immaculate conception of mary in no way contradicts the dogma that all children of adam are subject to original sin f the final cause causa finale's proxima of the immaculate conception of mary is okay so it's wrong it's gonna be a long a long reading because this is uh there's a lot of text here two proof from holy writ and tradition a the doctrine of the immaculate conception of mary is not explicitly revealed in scripture according to many theologians it is contained implicitly in the following and they're using the greek letters here obviously because they already have used the latin for the a so we're going with alpha as the first sub note so i'll say that again according to many theologians it is contained implicitly in the following passages alpha genesis 3 15 in the proto evangelium the translation of these words according to the original text is quote i will put enmity between you and the woman and between thy seed and her seed he the seed of the woman shall crust shall crush thy head and thou shalt crush his heel the literal sense of the passage is possibly the following between satan and his followers on the one hand and eve and her posterity on the other hand there is to be constant moral warfare the posterity of eve will achieve a complete and final victory over satan and his followers even if it is wounded in the struggle the posterity of eve includes the messiahs in whose power humanity will win a victory over satan the seed of the woman was understood as and thus the mother of god of the redeemer excuse me and thus the mother of the redeemer came to be seen in the woman since the second century this direct messianic marian interpretation has been expounded by individual fathers for example for example saint irenaeus saint epiphanius isidore of palestine pelosium saint cyprian the author of the epistola ad amicum egrotun saintly and saint leo the great however it is not found in the writings of the majority of the fathers among them the greatest t and the great teachers of the east and according to this interpretation mary stands with christ in a perfect and victorious enmity toward satan and his following many of the latter scholastics and a great many modern theologians argue in the light of this interpretation of the proto-evangelium that mary's victory over satan would not have been perfect if she had ever been under his dominion consequently she must have been she must have entered this world without staying without the stain of original sin the bull in a fabulis approves of this messianic marianic interpretation it draws from it the inference that mary and consequence of her intimate association with christ quote with him and through him had eternal and enmity towards the poisonous serpent triumphed in the most complete fashion over him and crushed its head with her immaculate foot end quote the bull does not give any authentic explanation of the passage it must also be observed that the infallibility of the papal doctrinal decision extends only to the dogma as such and not to the reasons given as leading up to the dogma i always often stress that the dogmas are infallible but the reasoning and leading up to the dogmas is not protected moving on now beta or vita as they say in greek luke 1 28 says quote hail full of grace in the angel salutation represents the proper name and must on this account express a characteristic quality of mary the principle reason why the pleasure of god rests in special fashion on her is her election to the dignity of the mother of god accordingly mary's endowment with grace proceeds from god's pleasure proceeding from god's say it again accordingly mary's endowment with grace proceeding from god's pleasure must also be of unique perfection however it is perfect only if it be however it is perfect only if it be perfect not only intensively but also extensively that is if it extends over her whole life gamma luke 141 elizabeth elizabeth filled with the holy ghost speaks to mary saying quote blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb end quote blessed art thou is rendered in greek means good logi means word and many the blessing of god which rests upon mary is made parallel to the blessing of god which rests upon christ in his humanity this parallelism suggests that mary like just like christ was from the beginning of her existence beta excuse me b so all that all this was from a and then below a we had alpha beta gamma now we're doing b neither the greek nor the latin fathers explicitly teach the immaculate conception of mary still they teach it implicitly alpha mary's most perfect purity and holiness saint ephram says quote thou and thy mother are the only ones who are totally beautiful in every respect for in thee oh lord there is no spot and in thy mother no stain end quote and the reference is given saint augustine says that all men must confess themselves sinners saying quote except the holy virgin mary whom i desire for the sake of the honor of the lord to leave entirely out of the question when we when the talk is of sin that reference escape in there according to the context however this must be taken as referring to freedom from personal sins beta the similarity and contrast between mary and eve mary is on the one hand a replica of eve in her purity and integrity before the fall on the other hand the anti-type of eve and so far as eve is the cause of corruption and mary the cause of salvation saint ephram teaches saying quote mary and eve two people without guilt two simple people were identical later however one became the cause of our death the other the cause of our life end quote and the reference is given you can see also saint justin saint irenaeus tertullian and the references are given three historical development of dogmas since the seventh century a feast of the conception of saint anne that is of the passive conception of mary was celebrated in the greek eastern church the celebration and the feast spread later to the west first to southern italy then to ireland and england under the title concepcio bellate marie the object of the celebration of the feast was initially the active conception of saint anne which according to the proto-gospel of saint james occurred after a long period of childlessness was foretold by an angel as an extraordinary manifestation of at the beginning of the 12th century the british monk edmure a pupil of saint and some of canterbury and ozber of clare advocated the immaculate passive conception of mary that is her conception free from original sin aidmer wrote the first monograph on this subject on the other hand saint bernard of clairvaux on the occasion of the institution of the feast in leo about 1140 warned the faithful that this was an unfounded innovation and taught that mary was sanctified after conception only that is when she was already in the womb and the reference is given under the influence of saint bernard the leading theologians of the 12th and 13th centuries including petrus lombardus saint alexander of hale saint bonapancher st albert the great saint thomas aquinas rejected the doctrine of the immaculate conception their difficulty was that they had not yet found the way to bring mary's freedom from original sin into consonance with the universality of original sin and with the necessity of all men for the correct approach to the final solution of the problem was first achieved by the franciscan theologian william of ware this was perfected by his great pupil blessed john dunn scotus who died in 1308. the latter taught that the animation animazio need not proceed the sanctification in order of time order temporaries but only in order of concept order nature through the introduction of the concept of pre-redemption pray redemption pre-redemption he succeeded in reconciling mary's freedom for from original sin with her necessity for redemption the preservation from original sin is according to scotus the most perfect kind of redemption thus it was fitting that christ should redeem his mother in this manner the franciscan order allied itself with scotus and in contrast to the dominican order decisively advocated the doctrine and the feast of the immaculate conception of mary in the year 1439 the council of basil in its 36th session which however had no ecumenical validity declared in favor of the immaculate conception pope sixtus iv who reigned from 1471 to 1484. endowed the celebration of the feast with indulgences and forbade the mutual censoring of the disputing factions the council of trent in its decree on original sin makes this significant declaration saying quote that it was not its intention to involve mary the blessed and immaculate virgin and mother of god in this decree end quote in 1567 blessed excuse me pope pius v condemned the proposition advanced by bias that nobody but christ had been free from original sin and that mary's sorrows and her death were a punishment for actual sins or for popes paul v gregory the 15th and alexander the seventh advocated the doctrine interesting alexander the seventh he's one of those nasty characters i think i'll have to verify that but it seems to uh on the eighth day of december 1854 pope pius ix having consulted the entire episcopal and speaking ex-cathedral declared the doctrine of the immaculate conception to four argument from reason reason base is the dogma on the scholastic axiom which is already found god could do it he ought to do it therefore he did it this it is true gives no certainty but still it rationally establishes for the item 4 marries freedom from evil concupiscence and from every personal one freedom from concupiscence and here we have a dogma from her conception mary was free from all motions of concupiscence it's ascent communist dogma from her conception mary was free from all motions of concupiscence freedom from original sin does not necessarily involve freedom from all defects which came into the world as a punishment for sin mary like christ himself was subject to the general human defects and insofar as these involve no moral imperfection concupiscence cannot be reckoned among these since it excites a person to commit acts which are materially contrary to god's law even where through lack of ascent they are not formal even though even where through lack of ascent they are not formal sins it would be incompatible with mary's fullness of grace and her perfect purity and immaculate state to be subject to motions of inordinate desire mary's merits are no more credit prejudiced by her freedom from concupiscence then are the merits of christ since concupiscence is indeed an occasion but not an indispensable precondition of merit mary acquired rich merits not by her struggle and not by any struggle against sensual desire but by her love of god and by other virtues other virtues faith humility and obedience many of the older theologians with saint thomas distinguish between the binding and the complete removal or extinction of the forms of the fomez picati that is of concupiscence so binding is rendered in latin li gazio and the removal or extinction is rendered su blazio and extinction in the sanctification of mary in the mother's womb concupiscence was so bound that every inordinate motion of the senses was excluded in christ's conception concupiscence was completely removed so that the powers of the senses were completely subject to the direction of reason see the suma in the references given the distinction made by saint thomas rests on the assumption that mary was cleansed from original sin since she was preserved from original sin it is logical to assume that she was from the very beginning entirely free from concupiscence free two freedom from actual sin in consequence and here we have a dogma in consequence of a special privilege of grace from god mary was free from every personal sin during her whole life this is ascent fide proxima dogma in consequence of a special privilege of grace from god mary was free from every personal sin during her whole life the council of trent declared saying quote no justified person can for his whole life avoid all sins even venial sins except on the ground of a special privilege from god such as the church holds was given to ecclesia pope pius xii says in the encyclical mystic corpura mestici corporus of the virgin mother of god that quote she was immune from all sin personal or inherited end quote mary's sinlessness may be deduced from the text luke 1 28 which says quote hail full of grace end quote since personal moral defects are irreconcilable with while individual greek fathers for example origin saint basil saint john chrysostom cyril of alexandria taught that mary suffered from venial personal faults such as ambition and vanity doubt about the message of ambition and vanity doubt about the message of the angel and lack of faith under the cross the latin patristic authors unanimously teach the doctrine of the sinlessness of mary saint augustine teaches that every personal sin must be excluded from the blessed virgin mary for the sake of the honor of god let's see the reference there saint ephrem the syrian puts mary in her immaculateness on the same plane as christ according to the teaching of saint thomas the fullness of grace which mary received in the act of conception according to modern theology and the passive conception implied confirmation and grace and therefore sinlessness i think this is a dogma but there's no grade of certainty given mary was a virgin before during and after the birth of christ i'm sure this is a dogma mary was a virgin before during and after the birth of christ the lateran synod of the year 649 under pope martin the first stressed the threefold character of mary's virginity teaching of the blessed ever virginal and immaculate mary that quote she conceived without seed of the holy ghost generated without injury to her virginity and her virginity continued pope paul iv declared in 1555 via tisi mam verginem mariam perstitisse semper inverguini tatis integritate antepartum she in partu at perpetuo postpartum mary's virginity includes verginitat virgin verginitas census that is freedom from inordinate motions of sexual desire and virginitas corporis that is physical integrity the church doctrine refers primarily to one virginity before the birth and here we have a dogma mary conceived by the holy ghost without the cooperation of man this is a defeated dogma mary conceived by the holy ghost without early opponents of the virginal conception of mary were the jews and the pagans for example celsius julian apostate karen or sarenth and the ebionites in modern times the rationalists seek to derive the to derive the belief in the amount in the immaculate conception either from isaiah 7 14 or from pagan mythology the church's faith in mary active the the church's faith in mary's active virginal conception is expressed in all the symbols of faith is it conceptus or conceptus or captus i end quote that mary led a virginal life up to the moment of her act of conception is attested by luke 1 26 and following she says quote the angel gabriel was sent from god to a virgin and the virgin's name was mary end quote mary's virginal conception was already foretold in the old covenant by the prophet isaiah in the famous emmanuel prophecy isaiah 7 14 says quote therefore the lord himself shall give a sign behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and his name shall be called emmanuel meaning god with us end quote so virgin is rendered alma i guess that's hebrew and in greek we have e parthenos the jews did not recognize this passage as messianic from the beginning however christians took it as referring to the messiah since the sign had been fulfilled compare matthew 1 22 and following the jewish object the jewish objection that the septuagint wrongly rendered the hebrew word alma by e parthenos equals the virgin the virgin instead of by i nayanis the young woman thus aquilas theodosian simakus is unfounded that criticism is unfounded as the word ha alma in biblical language means an untouched marriageable maiden compare genesis 24 43 with genesis 24 16 exodus 2 8 psalm 67 26 and h l 1 2 m 1 3 6 7 i don't know what these references are there the context demands the interpretation virgin for an extraordinary sign would exist only if a virgin as a virgin conceives conceives and gives birth obviously there's nothing remarkable about a young woman giving the fulfillment of the isaianic prophecy is narrated by matthew 1 18 following and luke 1 26 and following matthew 1 18 says quote when mary his mother was exposed to joseph before they came together she was found with child by the holy ghost end quote and luke 1 34 says quote and mary said to the angel how shall this be done because i know not man and the angel answering said to her the holy ghost shall come upon thee and the power of the most high shall overshadow the end quote as mary was living in lawful wedlock with joseph the latter was the legal father of jesus luke 3 23 says quote the son of joseph as it was supposed end quote compare luke 2 uh compare luke 2 23 and 48. the scruples of rationalist critics for example a hernak against the genuineness of luke 1 34-35 derived simply from the presuppositions inherent inherent in their philosophy of life their philosophy of life the unorthodox interpretation of the text of matthew 1 16 which is found in sirius sinaiticus says quote but james begot joseph and and joseph who was exposed to the virgin mary begot jesus end quote cannot be accepted as correct the ancient syrian translator apparently referred to the fatherhood of joseph in a purely legal sense since in the subsequent passages 1 18 and following in agreement with all other texts he speaks of the conception of jesus by the holy ghost the unorthodox interpretation arose from an improper reading of the text the proper reading as may be seen by a comparison with the western text he's as follows quote and james begat joseph who was exposed to the virgin mary who begat that is to say bore jesus who is called christ and hope the fathers affirmed the virgil conception of mary with complete unanimity saint ignatius of antioch and his work says quote truly born of a virgin end quote and references are given for other quotations starting with saint justin the fathers defend the messianic interpretation of isaiah 7 14 and stressed that the words are to be understood in such a manner that the mother of the emmanuel conceived and brought forth while still remaining a virgin in sensu compasito not in sensu diviso compare saint justin and the references are given and saint irenaeus and origen two virginity during the birth of jesus and here we have a dogma mary bore her son without any violation of her virginal integrity this is a defeated dogma on the ground of the general promulgation of doctrine mary wore her son without any violation of her virgi virginal integrity the dogma merely asserts the fact of the continuance of mary's physical virginity without determining more closely how this is to be physiologically explained in general the fathers and the schoolmen conceived it as non-injury to the hymen and accordingly taught that mary gave birth in miraculous fashion without opening of the womb and injury to the hymen and consequently also without pains references given to the zuma however according to modern natural scientific knowledge the purely physical side of virginity consists in the non-fulfillment of the sex act this is called sex act virginity and in the non-contact of the female egg by the male seed this is called seed act virginity see a miterer for more on that thus injury to the hymen in birth does not destroy virginity while on the other hand its rupture seems to belong to complete natural motherhood it follows from this that from the concept of virginity alone the miraculous character of the process of birth cannot be inferred but excuse me if it cannot be and must not be derived from other facts of so i'll read that again it follows from this that from the concept of virginity alone the miraculous character of the cannot be inferred if it cannot be and must not be derived from other facts of i'm a bit bewildered by that but i'll re listen to this and it'll sink in holy rit attests mary's active role in the birth mary's active role in the act of the birth matthew 1 25 luke 2 7 she brought forth which does not seem to indicate a miraculous process but the fathers with few exceptions vote for the miraculous character of the birth however the question is whether in doing so they attest a truth of revelation or whether they wrongly interpret a truth of revelation that is mary's virginity from an inadequate natural scientific point of view it seems hardly possible to demonstrate that the dignity of the son of god or the dignity of the mother of god demands a miraculous birth mary's virginity during the birth of jesus was contested in the early church by tertullian references given and especially by jovinian an opponent of the church ideal of virginal purity and in modern times by rationalists harnack for example calls it a gnostic invention jovinian's teaching was rejected his teaching is virgo concept or concept said non-virgo generality teaching was rejected at a synod at milan in 390 under the presidency of saint ambrose which recalled the invocation of the her virginity during the birth of jesus is included in the title of honor perpetual virgin which was given to mary by the fifth general counsel at constantinople in 553 the doctrine is expressly taught by pope saint leo the first in the aposto epistola dogmatica ad flaviano which was approved by the council of chalcedon it was taught also by the lateran sinait in 649 and by pope paul iv in 1555. pope pius xii in the encyclical mestice corporis says quote it was she who gave miraculous birth to christ our lord and quote the church's general teaching is expressed in her liturgy also compare the responsorium to the fifth lesson of the feast of christmas and to the eighth lesson of the feast of the circumcision of our lord isaiah 7 14 announces that the maiden as a virgin would give birth the fathers also in a typical sense refer to the virgin birth of our lord and also refer to the virgin birth of our lord the words of the prophet ezekiel on the closed gates references are given the words of the prophet isaiah on the painless birth references are given and the words of the song of songs on the closed garden and the sealed well and references are given saint ignatius of antioch characterizes not merely mary's virginity but also the bringing forth of her son as a mis as a quote mystery which must be proclaimed aloud end quote and the reference is given christ's virginal birth is accepted without ex without question in the apocryphal writings of the 2nd century i see the references that are given there and also by church authors such as saint irenaeus saint clement of alexandria origen saint ambrose saint jerome and saint augustine all the references are given defend the traditione church doctrine against jovanian for the illustration of the mystery the fathers and theologians employ various analogues the emergence of christ from the sealed tomb he's going through closed doors the penetration of the ray of sun going through a glass the birth of the logos from the bosom of the father the going out of human thought from the human spirit christ's miraculous emergence from the unimpaired womb of the virgin mother finds its ultimate explanation in the omnipotence of god saint augustine says quote in such things the whole ground of the mystery is the might of him who permits it to happen end quote the references are given three virginity after the birth of jesus and here we have another dogma also after the birth of jesus mary remained a virgin this is a de fite dogma also after the birth of jesus mary remained a virgin mary's virginity after the birth of jesus was denied in the early church by tertullian see the reference there younomius jovinian helvidius bonosus of sardica at the present day it is contested by the majority of protestants as well as by both the liberal and the conservative schools of thought pope saint cerritius rejected the teaching of bono the fifth general counsel 553 gives mary the title of honor perpetual virgin it's probably i.e parthenos i think see it's supposed to be parthenos right here they are about the epsilon thanos it should be compare the declarations of the latter and synod 649 and of pope paul iv in 1555. the liturgy also honors mary as the perpetual virgin compare the prayer communicantes comunicantes in the canon of the mass the church prays postpartum virgo in violata per manciste holy writ only indic only indirectly attests the continuance of mary's virginity after birth after the birth from the question which mary puts to the angel luke luke 1 34 quote how shall this be done because i know not man end quote it is inferred that she had taken the resolve of constant virginity on the ground of a special divine enlightenment in light of this text saint augustine and many fathers and theologians believed that mary made a formal vow of virginity however the subsequent espousals can hardly be reconciled with this we note that the fact that the dying redeemer entrusted his mother to the protection of the disciple john see john 19 26 which says woman behold thy son supposes presupposes that mary had no other children but jesus and you can see origins work on that so i'm going to mute this for a second by the brethren of jesus often named in holy scriptures and who are characteristically never called sons of mary are to be understood near relatives of jesus compare matthew 13 55 with matthew 27 56 john 19 25 and galatians 1 19 from the passage luke 2 7 which says quote and she brought forth her first born son and quote compare matthew 1 25 according to the vulgate it cannot be inferred that mary had more children after jesus as among the jews and only son was also known as the firstborn son since the firstborn had special privileges and duties the passages matthew 1 18 which says quote before they came together and quote and matthew 1 25 which says quote he knew her not till she brought forth her firstborn son and quote assert that up to a definite point in time the marriage was not consummated but not by any means that it was consummated after this compare genesis 8 7 2 samuel 6 23 and matthew 28 20. among the fathers many upheld the teaching of mary's virginity after the birth of jesus origen saint ambrose saint jerome saint augustine saint epis saint basil and saint basil remarks quote the friends of christ do not tolerate hearing that the mother of god ever ceased to be a virgin end quote and compare saint john damascene and the references given lots of references in that paragraph if you want to look those up from the fourth century onwards the fathers for generally accepted by the fathers and theologians and is expressed expressly that the reports has took place include ephesus and jerusalem by the way place of our death the sacramentarium gregorianum which pope hadrian the first transmitted to charles the great 84 791 tricks mortem subit subit tempuralum nectamin mortis nexibus the premium portuit quaffilium tomb unquote of the same sacramentary reads quote end quote origen saint ephrem savarian of gabala saint jerome and saying augustine mentioned the fact of her death incidentally saint epiphanius who had already instituted researches into the close of mary's life says quote nobody knows how she departed this world end quote he leaves undecided whether she died a natural death or whether according to luke 2 35 she died by violence or whether she still lives on you know immortal in some place unknown to us and the references are given for those ideas the unknown author of a sermon which has come down to us under the name of the presbyter timotheos of jerusalem 6th to 8th centuries 80 is of the opinion that the verb that quote the virgin is up to now immortal that is did not die as he who in her lived translated her into the place of reception that is into the heavenly paradise end quote the reference is given for mary death in consequences for freedom from original sin and from personal sin was not a consequence of punishment of sin however it seems fitting that mary's body which was by nature mortal should be in conformity with that of her divine son subject to the general law of death two bodily assumption of mary into heaven a dogma mary was assumed body and soul into heaven this is a de fide dogma mary was assumed body and soul into heaven after pope pius xii on the 1st of may 1946 had addressed to all bishops in the world the official query whether the bodily assumption of marion to heaven could be defined as a proposition of faith and whether they with their clergy and people desired the definition and when almost all the bishops had replied in the affirmative on the 1st of november 1950 he promulgated by the apostolic as a dogma revealed by god that quote mary the immaculate perpetually virgin mother of god say it again mary the immaculate perpetually virgin mother of god after the completion of her earthly life was assumed body and soul into the glory of heaven end quote i won't read the latter just because my relations thanks in the marian epilogue to the encyclical mystique corporese 1943 pope pius xii had already taught that mary quote resplendent in glory and body and soul reigns in heaven with her son end quote be proof from scripture and tradition direct and express scriptural proofs are not to be had the possibility of the bodily assumption before the second coming of christ is not excluded by first corinthians 15 23 as the objective redemption was completed with the sacrificial death of christ and the beginning of the final era foretold by the prophets commenced its probability is suggested by matthew 27 52-53 which says quote and the graves were opened and many bodies with saints that had slept arose and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection came into the holy city and appeared to many end quote according to the more probable explanation which was already expounded by the fathers the awakening of the saints was a final resurrection and transfiguration if however the justified of the old covenant were called to the perfection of salvation immediately after the conclusion of the redemptive work of christ then it is possible and probable that the mother of the lord was called to it also from her fullness of grace spoken of in luke 1 28 scholastic theology derives the doctrine of bodily assumption of the bodily assumption and glorification of mary since she was full of grace she remained preserved from the threefold curse of sin see genesis 3 16-19 as well as from her return to dust compare saint thomas and the reference is given in the woman of the apocalypse closed with clothed with the sun chapter 12 verse 1 which in its literal sense must be taken to mean the church scholastic theology sees also the transfigured mother of christ the father's two refer passages such as psalm 131 8 and a typical sense to the mystery of the bodily assumption quote arise o lord into thy resting place thou and the ark which thou hast sanctified the ark of the covenant made from incorruptible wood and that is a type of the incorruptible body of mary end quote apocalypse 11 19 says quote and the temple of god was opened in heaven and the ark of his covenant was seen in his temple end quote and the canticle of canticles 8 5 says quote who is this that cometh up from the desert flowing with delights leaning upon her beloved end quote modern theology usually cites genesis 3 15 in support of the doctrine since by the seat of the woman it understands christ and by the woman mary it is argued that mary had an intimate share in christ's battle against satan and in his victory over satan and sin she must also have participated intimately in his victory over death it is true that the literal reference of the text is to eve and not to marry but already since the end of the second century for example saint justin murder tradition has seen in mary the new eve speculative grounds on which the fathers of the closing patristic era and the theologians of the scholastic of the scholastic movement led by saints augustine uh saint augustine ninth century well pseudo i was sorry led by pseudo augustine ninth century based the incorruptibility and transfiguration of the body of mary base the incorruptibility and transfiguration of the body of mary are also based upon revelation these are alpha freedom from sin as the dissolution of the body is a punishment consequent of sin on sin and as mary the immaculately conceived and sinless one was exempt from the general curse of sin it was fitting that her body should be accepted from the general law of dissolution and immediately assumed into the glory of heaven in accordance with god's original plan for mankind beta or vita motherhood of god as the body of christ originated from the body of mary it was fitting that mary's body should share the lot of the body of christ as a physical spiritual relationship the motherhood of mary demands a likeness to her divine son and in body and soul gamma perpetual virginity as mary's body was preserved unimpaired in virginal integrity it was fitting that it should not be subject to destruction after death delta participation in the work of christ as mary in her capacity of mother of the redeemer took a most intimate share in the redemptive work of her son it was fitting that on the completion of her earthly life she should attain to the full fruit of the redemption which consists in the glorification of soul and body the idea of the bodily assumption of mary is first expressed in certain transitors narratives of the fifth and sixth centuries even though these are apocryphal they bear witness to the faith of the generation in which they were written despite their legendary clothing the first church author to speak of the bodily ascension of mary in association with an apocryphal transitors bvm is saint gregory of tours who died in 594. bvm is blessed virgin mary by the way early sermons on the feast of mary's entry into heaven are those of pseudomodestus of jerusalem about 700 jeremias of constantinople who died in 733 and andrew of crete who died in 740. saint john damascene died in 749 and in the east at least since the sixth century and that rome at any rate since the end of the seventh century sergius the first six eight range from 687 to 701 the church celebrated the feast of the sleeping of mary also known as the object of the feast was originally the death of mary but soon but very soon the thought appeared of the incorruptibility of her body and of its assumption into heaven the original title dermizio sleeping was changed into assumption sacramentarium gregory see the sacramentarium gregorianum in the liturgical and patristic texts of the 8th and 9th centuries the idea of the bodily assumption of the bodily assumption is clearly attested under the influence of sudo hiro nom hiron hieronymus pseudo hirona pseudo hieronymus there was certain there was uncertainty for a long time as to whether or not the assumption of the body was signified by the feast since the peak period of the middle ages the affirmative view has gained precedence and has now been dominant for a long c historical development of the dogma a hindrance to the development of the dogma of assumption in the west was a pseudo-augustinian sermon called adest nobis a letter forged under the name of jerome coggities coggitis may and the mercurology of the monk usuart pseudo augustine probably ambrosius ot pertus who died in 784 takes up the stand that we know nothing of the fate of mary's body pseudo hieronymus hassius radberdus who died in 865 i guess that's the name of the pseudo hieronymus leaves the question open whether whether mary was assumed into heaven or whether mary whether mary was assumed into heaven with or without her body but maintains the incorruptibility of her body usually who died about 875 praises the reticence of the church which proffers not to know the spot in which that venerable temple of the holy ghost was hidden from view by divine command than to maintain then to maintain it as something legendary usually's mercurology was extensively used in many monasteries and chapters during choir prayers part of the letter of found its way into the bravery this delayed the acceptance of the dogma into the theological thought of the middle ages in favor of the dogma an anonymous tract appeared called ad enterogata in the 12th century which has been attributed to saint augustine but but the original of which is not yet certain 9th to 11th century centuries decisively advocating on rational grounds the bodily assumption of mary since the 13th century the view represented by pseudo augustine has gained the upper hand the great theologians of the scholastic era just declared for it on the reform of the bravery under pope pius v in 1568 the pseudo-hironomian lessons were expunged and replaced by others which advocated the bodily assumption in the year 1668 a violent dispute flamed up in france on the doctrine of the assumption when the part of the chapter of notre dame in paris wished to revert to the which was abolished in 1540 or 1549 jean lonoy who died in 1678 energetically defended usually standpoint pope benedict the 14th who reigned from 1740 to 1758 declared the doctrine of the assumption to be a pious and probable opinion but in so doing did not declare that it belonged to the deposit tom fide in the year 1849 the first petitions for dogmatization were addressed at the vatican council nearly 200 bishops signed a motion for dogmatization since the beginning of the century the movement grew apace after the whole episcopate following an official inquiry of the pope in 1946 almost unanimously affirmed the possibility of and the desire for the definition pope pius xii confirmed saying quote the unanimous doctrine of the ordinary church teaching office and the unanimous belief of the christian people end quote in a solemn definition on november 1st 1950 3 the queenship of mary after being assumed into heaven and being raised above all angels and saints mary reigns with christ her divine son the fathers from ancient times honored her as the patroness lady queen queen of the creation queen of men references are given the letter the liturgy honors her as the queen of heaven and earth and so do the popes in their encyclicals for that you can see pius the ninth eliot the thirteenth and pius the twelfth mary's right to reign as queen of heaven is a consequence of her divine motherhood since christ because of the hypostatic union is as man the lord and king above all creation shares in the royal dignity of her son furthermore mary's royal merit is based on her intrinsic connection with christ in his work of redemption just as christ is also our lord and king because he has redeemed us with his precious blood so in an analogical way mary is our lady and queen because she is the new eve she as the because she the new eve has shared intimately in the redemptive work of christ the new adam by suffering with him and offering him up offering him up to the eternal father mary's sublime dignity as the queen of heaven and earth makes her supremely powerful in her maternal intercession for her children on earth you can see references there for ed cowelli reggie nam of pius xii in 1954. chapter 3 marries cooperation in the this turning into a long session maybe my voice is tired today so we'll leave it there i only did till uh 3.3.1 to 3.3.6 i'll have to change that label but uh i hope to feel a little bit better tomorrow i'll continue then thanks for watching thanks for listening thanks for watching thanks for listening and we'll talk very soon god bless