Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.10) - 2.1.20 to 2.1.31

Author Streamed Friday October 22nd, 2021

There are 18 episodes in the Live:Fundamentals series.

Streamed September 23rd, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.02) - 1.1.1 to 1.1.7

Streamed September 19th, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

From:Book 2, Part 1, Item 20to:Book 2, Part 1, Item 31of:Fundamentals of Catholic Dogmaby:Dr. Ludwig Ott


Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.10) - 2.1.20 to 2.1.31

Author Streamed September 12th, 2021

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okay so i'm back i'm live and i'm gonna pick up right where i left off last time we did book two part one there's only one part in book two book one book two part one and item 19 is the last one i did various states of human nature now we're moving on to three man's labs from the supernatural order and item 20 the personal sin of the first parents or original sin so three man's laps in the supernatural order section 20 or as i call it item 20. the personal sin of our first parents or one the act of sin and here we have a dogma our first parents in paradise sinned grievously through transgression through through transgression of the divine probationary commandment that's a defeated dogma our first parents of paradise sing grievously through transgression of the divine probationary commandment the council of trent teaches that adam lost sanctity and justice by transgressing the divine commandment since the punishment is proportionate to the guilt the sin of adam was clearly a serious sin the biblical account of the fall through the sin of the first parents is contained in genesis 2 17 and 3 1 and following since adam's sin is the basis of the dogma of original sin and redemption the historical accuracy of the account as regards the essential facts may not be impugned according to a decision of the bible commission in 1909 the literal historical sense is not to be doubted in regard to the following facts a that the first man received a command from god to test his obedience and b that through the temptation of the devil who took the form of a certain serpent he transgressed the divine commandment and see that our first parents were deprived of the later books of holy writ confirm this literal historical interpretation ecclesiasticus 25 33 says quote from the woman came the beginning of sin and by her we all die end quote wisdom 2 24 says quote but by the envy of the devil death came into the world end quote ii corinthians 11 3 says quote but i fear lust as the serpent seduced eve by his subtlety so your mind should be corrupted and fall away from the simplicity which is in christ end quote compare first timothy 2 14 romans 5 12 and following and john 8 44. the mythological explanation and the purely allegorical explanation for example of the alexandrians are therefore to be rejected the first sin excuse me the sin of our first parents was a sin of disobedience compare romans 5 19 which says quote by the disobedience of one man many were made sinners unquote the root of the disobedience was pride tobit 414 says quote from it pride all perdition took its beginning end quote ecclesiastes ecclesiastes 10 15 ecclesiasticus 10 15 says quote pride is the beginning of all sin end quote the theory the original sin was a sexual sin for example saint clement of alexandria and saint ambrose cannot be accepted the depravity of the sin is clear when we're when we regard its purpose and the circumstances of the divine commandment saint augustine regards adam's sin as an quote inexpressibly great sin end quote the consequences of sin and here we have a dogma a through sin our first parents lost sanctifying grace and provoked the anger and the indignation of god this is a defeat dogma through sin our first parents lost sanctifying grace and provoked the anger and the indignation of god in holy writ the loss of sanctifying grace is indicated in the exclusion of our first parents from intercourse with god see genesis 3 10 23 god appears as judge as a judge and announces the sentence of punishment genesis 3 16 and following god's displeasure finally takes effect in the eternal rejection tatian believed that adam lost eternal salvation but saint irenaeus in his work against all heresies tertullian in his work de pohenti puenet whatever that is and saint hippolytus in his work filos whatever that is rejected this view in later times the father is generally supported by in later times fathers generally supported by no read that again in later times the fathers generally supported by wisdom 10 2 which says she wisdom brought him out of his sin end quote teach that our first parents did atonement and quote through the blood of the lord unquote were saved from eternal so one of his works on sin probably his work on original sin here we have a second dog in this part b our first parents became subject to death and to the dominion of the devil this is a defeat a dogma our first parents became subject to death and to the dominion of the devil death and the evils associated with it follow from the loss of the gifts of integrity according to genesis 3 16 and following god imposed suffering and death as a punishment for sin the dominion of the devil is mentioned in genesis 3 15 and is explicitly taught in john 12 31 14 30 and second corinthians 4 4 section 21 the existence of original sin one the heretical counter propositions the doctrine of original sin was rejected by the gnostics and manichaeans who believe that the moral corruption of humanity comes from an eternal principle of evil and also by the originists and priscillianists who explained humanity's inclination to evil by a pre-corporeal original sin was directly denied by the pelagians who taught a the sin of adam is transmitted to posterity not by inheritance but through imitation of a bad example b death suffering and concupiscence are not punishment for sin but a natural condition of man who was created in a pure state of nature see the baptism of children isn't ministered not for the remission of sins but as a sign of acceptance by the church and to enable men to ch to reach the kingdom of heaven which is distinct from vita eterna a higher stage of blessedness taught by the origin is the priscillianist oh sorry that was by the pelagians these are the errors of the pelagians okay the pelagian error was combated chiefly by saint augustine and was condemned by the church at the synods of milev in 416 carthage in 418 orange in 529 and in later times with the pelagian error lives on in modern rationalism and here we have many instances or examples of modern rationalism we have in parenthesis socialism rationalism of the age of enlightenment liberal protestant theology and modern unbelief interesting how that's all clumped together there under the heading of modern rationalism which is infected by this pelagian sort of error these pelagian errors plural in medieval times the synod of sens in 1141 rejected the following thesis of peter abellard quad non-contra maxi moose the reformers the bayens and the janzinists admitted the reality of original sin but misunderstood its essence and its operation since they regarded it as identical with concupiscence which corrupts completely human nature compare saint augustine and the reference is given two the teaching of the church and here we have a dogma adam's sin is transmitted to his posterity not by imitation but by descent and this is a defeated dogma adam sin is transmitted to his posterity not by imitation but by dissent the dogmatic teaching on original sin is laid down in the tr trident tridentine decree quote super piccato originali end quote session 5 and 1546 i just finished reading the documents all of the documents of interesting read i recommend it it didn't take me too long to burn through there was a lot of corruption in the church at that time they addressed it directly which okay let's start this again the dogmatic teaching on original sin is laid down in the tridentine decree super piccato originality which in part follows word for word the decisions of the synods of carthage and of orange the council of trent rejects the doctrine that adam's loss of sanctity and justice received from god was merely for himself alone and not for us also and that he transmitted to his posterity death and suffering only but not the guilt of sin it positively teaches trent his trent that is to say positively teaches that sin which is the death of the soul is inherited by all his posterity by descent not by imitation and that it dwells that it dwells in every single human being it is removed by the merits of the redemption of jesus christ which as a rule are bestowed through the sacrament of baptism on adults as well as on children therefore children are baptized for the in latin in continuing three proof from the sources of faith a scriptural proof the old testament contains references to original sin compare especially psalm 57 quote which says quote for behold i was conceived in iniquities and in sins did my mother conceive me end quote one of my probably my favorite psalm job 14 4 says quote who can make him clean that is conceived unclean and quote both passages speak of an inborn sinfulness whether this be understood in the sense of habitual sin or merely of the inclination to sin but do not bring this into causal connection with the sin of adam the causal connection between the death of all mankind and the sin of our first parents original death is however clearly stated in the old testament compare ecclesiasticus 25 33 and wisdom 224 the passage which contains the classical proof is romans 5 12-21 in which the apostle draws a parallel between the first adam from whom sin and death were transmitted are transmitted to all humanity and christ the second adam from whom justice and life are transmitted to all men verse 12 says quote wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world and by sin death and so sin passed upon all men in whom all have sinned and continuing verse 19 says for as by the disobedience of one man many were made sinners so also by the obedience of one so they render the verse 12 the relevant passage in verse 12 in latin as in quo omnes pekka veront in whom all sin have sinned and in greek in greek is to be understood quite generally sin which here appears what does that mean by sin is to be understood quite generally sin which here appears personified okay i guess he's talking about by sin a martial is to be understood quite generally sin which he replies which here appears personified original sin is therefore included what is meant is the guilt of sin and not the consequences of sin death is expressly distinguished from sin and is represented as the consequence of sin concupiscence is not meant because sin according to verse 18 and following is removed by the grace of christ's redemption while evil desire remains as experience shows sad but true okay so why have we got beta that's kind of weird is there an alpha somewhere did i see an alpha here somewhere so they have a scriptural proof and then they're gonna go to be proof from tradition okay so i this beta is a continuation of a beta the words in quo i guess that means in the words okay the words in quo the words and then in latin in quo or in greek f o verse 12 d were related relatively to unum hominem by saint augustine and during the whole middle ages saying quote by one man in whom all have sinned end quote since the time of erasmus the better founded conjunctional meaning already proposed by the fathers especially by the greeks came to the and they render it in greek f4 meaning quote on the ground that all have sinned end quote or quote because all i've sinned and quote compare the linguistic parallels in second corinthians 5 4 philippians 3 12 and 4 10 and romans 8 3 since those also die who have committed no personal sin for example young children the the origin of bodily death is not a personal guilt compare verse 13 and following and verse 19 in which the sin of adam is given as the reason for the sinfulness of the many the conjunctional interpretation which is adopted generally today conforms to the explanation of saint augustine all gamma the words quote many were made sinners many in greek being rendered as ipoli that's where we get that the hoy paloy from the rabble the hoi polloi here we have is just pronounced e at least in modern greek i'm not sure about ancient greek starting again with gamma the words many were made sinners verse 19 8 do not limit the universality of original sin since the expression many in opposition to the one adam or christ is parallel to in verse 12 d and 18a moving on now b proof from tradition saint augustine appeals to the tradition of the church against the pelagian bishop julian of ecle eklunum saying quote it is not i who have invented original sin which the catholic faith holds from of old but thou who deniest it thou art without doubt a new heretic end quote saint augustine in his contra juliannum produces a formal proof from tradition in which he quote in which he quotes saint irenaeus saint ciprian uh i don't know how to pronounce c's in latin radicchios of atun olympius saint hillary saint ambrose innocent the first saint gregory of nancy ances saint john chrysostom saint basil and saint jerome as witnesses of the catholic teaching many assertions of the greek fathers who insist on personal responsibility for sin and appear entirely to persian from original sin are to be understood as being in opposition to gnostic manikin dualism and to originistic pre-existing pre-existentialism pre-existentialism saint augustine defends the teaching of saint john chrysostom against its translate that if you are able irrefutable proof of the conviction of the primitive church as to the reality of original sin is the old christian practice of the baptism of children quote for the remission of sin and quote the reference is given there the doctrine of original sin cannot be proved by natural reason nevertheless the fact of original sin is evidenced by many science bit of an understatement there picati originalis in humano genera such signs are the frightful moral aberrations of humanity and the many lapses from belief in the true god for example polytheism and atheism so true so sad and so obvious it was um g k chesterton who said you just need to read the newspaper to prove the dogma of moving on now item 22 i guess i might as well just call it item because that's what i call it item 22 the nature of original sin one false views a the view of peter abelard the original sin consists according to the teaching of the council of trent original sin is a true and proper sin that is a guilt of sin saint paul speaks of a real sin in romans 5 12 he says quote all have sinned compare romans 5 19 be original sin does not consist as the reformers the buy-ins and the jazziness taught in quote the habitual concupiscence which remains even in the baptized a true and proper sin but is no longer reckoned for punishment end the council of trent teaches that through baptism everything is taken away and that the concupiscence which remains behind after baptism for the moral proving is called sin in an improper sense only that sin remains in man even if it is not reckoned for punishment oh that sin remains in man even if it is not reckoned for punishment is irreconcilable with the pauline teaching of justification as an inner transformation and renewal the justified man is saved from the danger of rejection because the ground for the rejection the sin is removed romans 1 uh romans 8 1 says quote there is now therefore no condemnation to them that are in christ jesus end quote as concupiscence inconcupiscence of the composition of human nature out of body and spirit would be present as natural evil even in the pure state of nature it cannot be sinful in itself for god has created i'll read that last sentence again as okay i i misread that as as concupiscence in consequence of the composition of human nature out of body and spirit would be present as nature evil even in the pure state of nature it cannot be sinful in itself for god has there are no evil see original sin does not consist as among others albert pigus who died in a dominican who died in 1553 taught in a mere external imputation of the sinful deed of adam imputation theory according to the teaching of the council of trent adam's sin is transferred by inheritance to all the children of adam and exists as his own proper sin in according to the teacher according to the teaching of the council of trent the efficacy of baptism consists in a real eradication of sin not in a mere non-imputation of an alien guilt two positive solution and here we have a dogma originals consid sin consists in the deprivation of grace caused by the free act of sin committed by the head of the race this is ascent communist grade of certainty on this dogma original sin consists in the deprivation of grace caused by the free act of sin committed by the head of the race adam a the council of trent defined original sin as the death of the soul in latin moore's anime the death of the soul is however the absence the not being present that is to say it's the absence of supernatural life that is of sanctifying grace in baptism original sin is eradicated through the infusion of sanctifying grace it follows from this that original sin is a condition of being deprived of grace this flows from the pauline contrast between sin proceeding from adam and justice proceeding from christ romans 5 19 as the justice bestowed by christ consists formally in sanctifying grace so the sin inherited from adam consists formally in the lack of sanctifying grace the lack of sanctifying grace which according to the will of god should be present establishes that the guilt of original sin signifies a turning away from god as the ratio voluntary that is the free incurring of guilt belongs to the concept of formal sin and as a young child cannot perform a personal voluntary act in original sin the factor of spontaneity must be explained from its connection with adam's deed of sin adam was the representative of the whole human race on his voluntary decision depended the preservation or the loss of the supernatural endowment which was a gift not to him personally but to human nature as such his transgression was therefore the transgression of the whole human race pope pius v rejected the assertion of bias that original sin had the character of sin in itself without any reference to the will from which it sprung compare saint augustine retractions and saint thomas's summer the references are given b according to the teaching of saint thomas original sin consists formality in the lack of original justice materiality in the unregulated concupiscence in every sin saint thomas distinguishes between a formal and a material element the turning away from god and the turning toward the creature the turning away from god and the turning toward the creature turning away from god is rendered in latin as a version and the turning away turning toward the creature is rendered in latin conversion creature as the turning towards the creature manifests itself above all in evil desire saint thomas with saint augustine sees in concupiscence which itself is a consequence of original sin the material element of original sin the doctrine of saint thomas was influenced partially by saint anselm of canterbury who sees in the nature of original sin only the lack of original justice and partially by saint augustine who defines original sin as an evil concupiscence with its state of guilt and explains that the state of guilt is removed by baptism while the concupiscence persists for a moral test but not as sin most of the post-pride posture identity theologians do not regard concupiscence as an essential constituent part of original sin but as its consequence so skipped a bit of the latin but no big where item 23 the transmission of original sin and here we have a dogma original sin is transmitted by natural generation this is a defeat a dogma original sin is transmitted by natural generation the council of trent says transfusion omnibus in the baptism of children that is explorated which they have incurred through generation in the baptism of children that is expergated which they have incurred it is transmitted in the same way as human nature through the natural act of generation although according to its origin it is a single sin that is the sin of the head of the race alone the sin of eve is not the cause of original sin it is multiplied over and over again through the natural generation whenever a child of adam enters existence in each act of generation human nature is communicated in a condition deprived interesting that the sin of eve is not the cause of the chief cause of original sin is the sin of adam alone the instrumental cause is the natural act which gives rise to the connection of the individual human being with the head of the race the actual concupiscence associated with the active generation the sexual pleasure libido is contrary to the view of saint saint augustine neither the cause nor the inescapable condition for the reproduction of original sin it is only an accompany an accompanying phenomenon of the act of generation which in itself alone is the instrumental cause of the transmission of original sin reference given to the summa if you want to look that up objections from the christian doctrine of the reproduction of original sin it does not follow as a pelagian is maintained that god is the originator of sin god forbid god forbid the soul created by god is according to its natural constitution good the condition of original sin signifies the want of a supernatural advantage to which the creature has no claim god is god is not obliged to create a soul with the adornment of sanctifying grace god is not to be blamed for the fact that the newly created soul is denied the supernatural endowment but man is who misused his freedom again it does not follow from this teaching that marriage is bad the marital act of generation is good because objectively that is according to its adaptation to its end and subjectively that is according to the intention of the generators it it is aimed at good namely the reproduction of the human nature sex is good item 24 the consequences of original sin the consequences of original sin are following luke 10 30 summarized by the scholastic theologians in the axiom by adam's sin man is deprived of the supernatural gifts and wounded in his nature the word gratuita usually means only the absolute supernatural gifts and naturalia the gifts of integrity which were part of man's abilities and powers before the fall references are given for the summa number one loss of the supernatural endowment and here we have a dogma in the state of original sin man is deprived of sanctifying grace and all that this implies as well as of the predator natural gifts of integrity this dogma is de fidei in regard to sanctifying grace and the donum immortale tastes in the state of original sin man is deprived of sanctifying grace and all of this implies as well as of these preternatural gifts of integrity the lack of the sacrif the lack of the sanctifying grace has as a turning away of man from god the character of guilt and as the turning of god and as the turning of god away from man the character of punishment say that again the lack of sanctifying grace has as a turning away from the lack of saying the lack of the sanctifying grace has as a turning away of man from god the character of guilt as the turning of god away from man the character of punishment the lack of the gifts of integrity results in man's being subject to con concupiscence suffering and death the results remain even after the extirpation of original sin not as punishment but as the so-called puenalites that is to say as the means given to man to achieve the practice of virtual and moral integrity so we should be grateful for our concupiscence i guess it gives us a chance to strive against our fallen nature the person stained by original sin finds himself in the imprisonment and slavery of the devil whom jesus calls the prince and saint paul the god of this world see second corinthians 4 4 compare hebrews hebrews 2 14 and ii peter 2 19. two wounding of nature the wounding of nature must not be conceived with the reformers and the jazziness as the complete corruption of human nature or they would say total depravity in the condition of original sin man possesses the ability of knowing natural religious truths and of performing natural morally good actions the vatican council teaches that man with his natural power of cognition can with certainty know the existence of god the council of trent teaches that free will was not lost or extinguished by the fall of as i adam the calvinists would have us believe the wounding of nature extends to the body as well as to the soul the second council of orange in 529 explained the whole man both in body and in soul side by side with the two wounds of the body sensibility to suffering and mortality theologians with saint thomas enumerate four wounds of the soul which are opposed to the four cardinal virtues namely we have a ignorance that is difficulty in knowing the truth this is the opposite of prudence be malice that is the weakening of the power of the will c weakness that is the recoiling before difficulties in the struggle for the good and d desire in the narrower sense that is the desire for satisfaction of the senses against the judgment of reason and this is opposite to temperance the wounds of the body are caused by the loss of the predator natural gifts of impossibility i guess that should be impassability and immortality the wounds of the soul by the loss of the pro-natural gift of freedom from freedom from freedom from concupiscence there is a controversy as to whether the wounding of nature consists exclusively in the loss of the predator natural gifts or whether human nature in addition is intrinsically weakened in an accidental manner the former view which is that adopted by saint thomas and by most theologians conceives the wounding of nature as relative only that is to say by comparison with its primitive condition while the latter view can the latter view conceives it as absolute and visualizes it as a worsening in comparison with the pure state of nature according to the former view the person who is born in original sin is to the human being in the state of nature as one stripped of his clothes is according to the latter view as the sick person is to the healthy oh according to the latter view as the sixth as the sick person is to the healthy the former view is to be preferred as the sinful act of adam which occurred once only could neither in his own nature nor in the nature of his posterity affect an evil habit and with it a weakening of the natural powers see the summa however it must be admitted that fallen human nature in consequence of individual and social aberrations has declined below the state of pure nature item 25 souls who depart this life in this if here we have a dogma souls who depart this life in the state of original sin are excluded from the beatific vision of god there's a defeated dogma souls who departs life in the state of original sin are excluded from the beatific vision of god the second general council of lyon in 1274 and the council of florence 1438-45 declared the souls of those who die in original sin as well as those who die in actual mortal sin go immediately into hell the dogma is supported by the words of our lord who said quote unless a man be more unless a man be born again of water and the holy ghost he cannot enter into the kingdom of god and quote that from the spiritual rebirth of young infants can be can be achieved in an extra sacramental manner through the baptism by blood compare the baptism by blood of the children of bethlehem other emergency means of baptism for children dying without sacramental baptism such as prayer and desire of the parents or the church vicarious baptism of desire seek adjective or the attainment of the use of reason in the moment of death so that the dying child can decide for or against god this is the baptism of desire you can see h clee for more on that or suffering and death of the child as a quasi-sacrament the baptism of suffering for this you can see h shell are indeed possible but their actuality cannot be proved from revelation in the punishment of hell theologians distinguish between the puena damni which consists in the exclusion from the beatific vision of god and that puena which is caused by external means and which will be felt by the senses even after the resurrection of the body well saint augustine and many latin fathers are of the opinion that children dying and original sin must suffer puene census also the greek fathers for example saint gregory of nazianzus and the majority of the schoolmen and more recent theologians teach that they suffer puena damni only the declaration of pope innocent iii is a condition of natural bliss is compare saint thomas on evil it's work on evil and the other references are given there so this is that doctrine of limbo that we're talking about here theologians usually assume that there is a special place or state for children dying without baptism which they call limbus puerto rum children's limbo that's where that puerorum that's where we get our word puerile childish pope pius sixth adopted this chapter three revelation concerning the angels or christian angelology item 26 existence origin and number of the angels one existence and origin of the angels and here we have a dogma in the beginning of time god created spiritual essences or angels out of nothing this is a defeated dogma in the beginning of time god created spiritual essences out of nothing the existence of the angels was denied by the sadducees see acts 23 8 which says quote the sadducees say that there is no resurrection neither angel nor spirit but the pharisees confess both and quote and by materialists and rationalists in all times modern rationalists explain the angels as personifications of divine attributes and activities or see in the jewish christian doctrine of the angels traces of an original polytheism or a borrowing from babylonian and persian legends the fourth lateran and the vatican councils declare simultaneously at the beginning of time he created from nothing both spiritual and corporal creation that is to say angelic and mundane it is not defined that the creation of the angel world was contemporaneous with that of the material world simul can also mean in total or together compare ecclesiasticus 18 1 but the sentencia communis is that both were created at the same that's how i've always seen it too holy writ even in its oldest books affirms the existence of the angels who glorify god and as his messengers and servants a bunch of references are given biblical references the creation of the angels is indirectly attested in exodus 20 11 which says quote in six days the lord made heaven and earth and the sea and all things that are in them end quote and directly in colossians 1 16 which says quote for in him that is christ were all things created in heaven and on earth visible and invisible whether thrones or dominions or they say dominations or principalities or powers end quote tradition affirming the existence of the angels is unanimous from the very beginning the early christian apologists in refuting the reproach of atheism also mentioned the existence of the angels see saint justin is a poet apology and a work by anthony the first monograph on the angels was composed about 580 by pseudo-dionysius aerio pagita hierarchical among the latin fathers saint augustine and saint gregory the great occupy themselves minutely with angelology the liturgy of the church also affords many testimonies natural reason cannot prove the existence of the angels since their creation is a free deed of god from the known sequence of stages of the perfections of the creatures however the existence of purely spiritual created essences can with a high degree of probability we the lower animals don't have a rational soul we humans have a rational soul and a body like animals but our rational soul is like the angels and so there's that sort of hierarchy that we can use to ascertain with high degree of probability that angels exist even if we didn't have revelation or number of the angels the number of the angels is according to holy writ very great the scriptures speak of myriads you see hebrews 12 22 of thousands and thousands dan 7 10 and apocalypse 5 11 of legions matthew 26 53 the various biblical names indicate a gradation and order among the angels since the time of pseudo-dionysius nine choirs or orders of angels are named of which three form a hierarchy in accordance with holy scripture these are called seraphim cherubim thrones principalities powers strengths archangels and angels with slight modern variations a bunch of references are given there from the bible the division of the angel world into nine orders and the illumination of the lower orders through the higher orders a teaching which stems from neoplatonism is not a truth of faith but a free theological opinion the same applies to the grouping of the angels by the schoolman which goes back to dan daniel 7 10. into angeli assistentes and angeli ministrap ministrantes assistants at the throne and messengers of god to the former group are allocated the upper six choirs to the latter group the lower three revelation testifies however that the functions of assisting and of serving are not mutually exclusive see for example what that book's called tobit 12 15. and luke 1 19 and 126. according to the teaching of saint thomas which is connected with the doctrine of principle of individuation the angels are specifically distinguished from one another thus each angel forms a separate species fascinating other theologians as against this teach either that all the angels together form one species only say now for example saint albert the great or that the individual hierarchies or choirs form particular species for this see for example the franciscan school and moving on item 27 the nature of the angels one immateriality of the angel nature and here we have a dogma the nature of angels is spiritual this is a defeated dogma the nature of the angels is spiritual the fourth lateran and the vatican councils speak of a spiritual and a corporeal creation and refer the former to the angels as distinct from human nature which is composed of spirit and body the nature of the angel is spirit the nature of the angels is purely spiritual that is free of all materiality holy writ explicitly calls the angels spirits in latin spiritus and greek pneumata compare three kings i guess that would be chronicles right first chronicles three kings 22 21 daniel 386 wisdom 723 second maccabees and so on their whole bunch of references given i won't read them all you can pause and make note of them if you want to look those up st paul contrasts quote the spirits of wickedness end quote that is the fallen angels with quote flesh and blood and quote that is mankind ephesians 6 12 says quote we must not wage battle against flesh and blood but against the principalities against the powers against the rulers of the world of this darkness against the spirits of evil in the world of heaven end quote the act of con contrasting shows that the fallen angels were visualized as jude 6 to 7 raises a difficulty concerning the immateriality of the angels if the words quote in like manner having given themselves to fornication end quote from verse 7 be referred to the angels if this interpretation be correct be correct we have here a reference to the widespread belief of late judaism which was accepted also by many christians in the primitive church that some of the angels had a marital had marital relations with women genetics see for example genesis 6 2 and were punished for it by god the apostle then is not to be taken here as making a statement about the nature of the angels he is simply making a traditional opinion he is simply using a traditional opinion to emphasize the judgment of god upon wickedness a great number of the fathers ascribed to the angels a fine ethereal or fire amongst these was saint augustine who was influenced in this matter not only by stoic and platonic views but also by a misinterpretation of certain passages in sacred scripture for example psalm 103 4 and genesis 6 2. others such as eusebius of caesarea saint gregory of nazianzus pseudo dionysius and saint gregory the great affirm the pure spirituality of the angels saint gregory the great says quote the angel is only a spirit man on the other hand flesh and spirit end quote in the peak period of scholasticism the franciscan school posited a composition of material and form undefined and defining in purely spiritual created substances while st thomas and his school regarded purely spiritual substances as forms without matter form a subsistence or see there's someone the reference is given two natural immortality of the angels and here we have a dogma the angels are by nature immortal this is ascent communist grade of certainty the angels are by nature immortal the natural immortality of the angels flows from the pure spirituality of their nature compare luke 20 36 which says quote neither can they the resurrected die anymore for they are equal to the angels end quote the blessedness of the good angels and the rejection of the bad angels is according to the testimony of revelation matthew 18 10 says quote i say to you that their angels in heaven always see the face of my father who is in heaven and quote matthew 25 41 says quote depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels unquote to put for the view put forward by saint john damascene and by many school men for example scotus and bl that the immortality of the angels is a free is a gift of grace is unsound in reality immortality is a necessary consequence of their spiritual nature see the summa for more on that three understanding will and power of the angels as spiritual essences the angels possess understanding and free will the intellect and the will of the angels is on account of this pure spirituality of their nature more perfect than those of men but on account of the fruit of the finiteness of their nature infinitely more imperfect than the knowledge and will of god obviously the angels do not know the secrets of god see first corinthians 2 11. they do not possess a knowledge of the heart see 3 kings 8 39 and they have no certain foreknowledge of the free actions of the future see isaiah 46 9 and following which says quote but that day and hour of the judgment no one knoweth unquote see also matthew 24 36 and mark 13 32 also their wills are mutable the angels the mode of cognition of the angels is corresponding to their purely spiritual nature purely spiritual they gain spiritual concepts not like man by abstractions from sensory perception but receive them on their creation receive them on their creation simultaneously with the nature with the natural power of cognition as a or indeed see the sun for that the natural cognition of god possessed by the angels is immediately one knowledge from the contemplation of the perfections of creatures especially of their own perfections references given to the sumo again freedom of the will is a presupposition of the fall through sin of the bad angels and of their eternal rejection second peter 2 4 says quote god spared not the angels that sinned and quote as the angels in their nature are superior to all other creatures they also possess a higher perfection of power than other creatures according to ii peter 2 11 the angels are superior in strength and power to men however the angels do not possess the power of creation and the power of working miracles in the strict sense item 28 the supernatural exaltation and probation of the angels one elevation to the state of grace and here we have a dogma god set a supernatural final end for the angels the immediate vision of god and endowed them with sanctifying grace in order that they may that they might achieve this ant this is a scent sirta grade of certainty on this dogma god sent god set a supernatural final end for the angels the immediate vision of god and endowed them with sanctifying grace in order that they might achieve this end a pope pius v rejected the teaching of bias that not grace but eternal bliss is the reward to the good angels for their jesus in the warning against scandal assures quote their angels in heaven always see the face of my father who is in heaven and quote matthew 8 10 18 10. compare tobit 12 19. however the indispensable precondition for the achievement of the immediate vision of god is the possession of sanctifying grace the fathers attest the elevation of the angels to the state of grace saint augustine teaches that all angels without exception were endowed with habitual grace in order to be good and were constantly supported by cooperating grace in order to be able to remain good references given to the city of god and other works by saint augustine saint john damascene teaches quote all the angels were created by the logos and perfected by the holy ghost through sanctification corresponding to their dignity and to their order of rank they became participators in the illumination and the grace and quote b as far as the time of the elevation into the state of grace is concerned petrus lombardus with the medieval franciscan school teaches that the angels were created without supernatural endowment and that they were required to prepare themselves with the help of actual grace blessedness of heaven references biblical references are given while the bad angels who did not pass the test fell under the ban of eternal damnation see 2 peter 2 4 and jude 6. as far as the fallen angels are concerned the fact of their moral testing may be inferred from the fact of the fall ii peter 2 4 as regards the good angels it cannot with certainty be established from scripture as their blessedness is not expressively expressly represented as a reward for their loyalty the opinion adopted by many of the fathers that the angels were created in a state of glory is as regarded the bad angels as regards the bad angels irreconcilable with the fact of the fall the view which was held for a long time by saint augustine but which was finally abandoned by him that from the beginning there were two distinct realms of angels the higher realm consisting of the angels created in the state of glory and therefore incapable of sin and the lower realm of the angels capable of sin who had first to merit perfect blessedness by loyal fulfillment of duties is improbable as it implies a completely unfounded difference in the original creation of the angels see the zuma from that moving on item 29 the fall through sin and the rejection one the fall through sin and here we have a dogma the evil spirits also known as demons were created good by god they became evil through their there is no indication of the great uncertainty of this dogma the evil spirits were created but were created good by god they became evil through their own fault what saint augustine always says is good by nature evil by choice the fourth lateran council 1215 declared against the gnostic manikin dualism the devil and the other demons were created by god good in their nature but they themselves have made themselves evil holy writ teaches that a section of the angels had not withstood the test that they fell into grievous sin and as punishment therefore were cast into hell ii peter 2 4 says quote god spared not the angels that sinned but delivered them down but delivered them drawn down by infernal ropes to the lower hell unto torments to be reserved unto judgment end quote and jude 6 says quote the angels who kept not their principality but forsook their own habitation he hath reserved under darkness in everlasting chains unto the judgment of the great day end quote compare john 8 44 which says quote he the devil stood not in the truth end quote the passages luke 10 18 and apocalypse 12 7 and following do not refer to the fall of angels but to the dethronement of satan through the ethics efficacy of christ's redemption as is evident from the context of as is evident from the context compare john 12 31 so those passages luke 10 18 reads quote i saw satan like lightning falling from heaven and quote and apocalypse 12 7 and following says uh is the battle between michael and his angels on the one side and the dragon and his angels on the other side and the fall of the dragonis angels to the earth in any case the sin of the angels is to be conceived as a sin of the spirit indeed following saint augustine and saint gregory the great it is a sin of pride not a sin of the flesh as many of the older fathers saint justin athanagarris tertullian say saint clement of alexandria saint ambrose thought in view of the jewish tradition that the marital connections between the sons of god mentioned in genesis 6 2 referred to angels and the daughters of man apart from the fact that the fall through sin of the angels was anterior in time to genesis 6 2 the purely spiritual nature of the angels negatives compare ecclesiasticus 10 15 which reads quote pride is the beginning of all sin and quote the fathers and theologians generally refer to the fall of the devil through sin the words of jerob jeremy jeremiah 2 20 which the recusant israel speaks to its god saying quote i will not serve end quote as well as the prophecy of the prophet isaiah 14 12 and following on the king of babylon when he said quote how art thou fallen from heaven oh lucifer who did rise in the morning and they sayest in thy and they sayest in thy heart i will ascend into heaven i will exalt my throne above the stars of god i will be like the most high and quote compare saint gregory the great two eternal rejection as the blessedness of the good angels is of eternal duration so the punishment of the bad angels is also without end matthew 25 41 says quote depart from ye you he cursed into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels end quote and compare jude 6 which says quote in everlasting chains end quote and apocalypse 2010 which says quote and the false prophet shall be tormented day and night forever and ever the belief of origen and many of his followers including saint gregory of nisa the mists of alexandria concerning the restoration of all things according to which the damned angels and men after a long period of purification will be re-established in grace and will return to god was rejected at a synod of so the restoration of all things is rendered in pandone compare acts what does that say acts s 3 21 oh acts 3 21 moving on item 30 the efficacy of the good angels one relation to god and here we have a dogma the primary task of the good angels is the glorification and the service of god this is a cent certa grade of certainty the primary task of the good angels is the glorification and the service of god holy writ adjures the angels to praise god and attests that they glorify god by their praise compare psalm 102 20 and following which says quote bless the lord all ye his angels unquote many more references are given there god is served as well as praised as ambassadors of god the angels transmit revelations and directions to mankind there are many biblical references given two relation to man and here we have a dogma a the secondary task of the good angels is the protection of men and care for their salvation this is a de fide dogma on the ground of general teaching the secondary task of good angels is the protection of men and care for their since the 16th century the church celebrates a feast in honor of the guardian angels the roman catechism teaches quote by god's providence the task is given to the angels of protecting the human race and individual human beings so that they may not suffer any serious harm whatever end quote holy writ testifies that all the angels are in the service of mankind hebrews 1 14 says quote are they not all ministering angels sent to minister for them who shall receive the inheritance of salvation end quote psalm 90 11 and following describes the care of the angels for the just and there are many more biblical references given according to origen it is quote a constituent part of the doctrinal promulgation of the church that there are angels of god and benevolent powers which serve him in order to complete the salvation of mankind and quote compare origin against celsius be and here we have another dogma every one of the faithful has his own special guardian angel from baptism it's ascent certa dogma every one of the faithful has his own special guardian angel from baptism according to the general teach teaching of the theologians however not only every baptized person but every human being including unbelievers has his own special guardian angel from his birth this view is biblically founded on the words of our lord matthew 18 10 says quote see that you do not despise one of these little ones for i say to you that their angels in heaven always see the face of my father who is in heaven compare acts 12 15 which says it is his saint basil with reference to matthew 18 10 teaches quote everyone of the faithful has an angel standing at his side as educator and guy directing his life end quote according to the testimony of saint gregory the wonder worker and of saint jerome every person has from his birth his own special guardian angel saint jerome comments on matthew 18 10 saying quote how great is the value of the human soul that every single person has from birth received an angel for his protection end quote saint gregory the wonder workers thanksgiving speech on or comparison gregory the wonder workers thanksgiving speech on origin and there's also a reference given to besuma three veneration of angels the veneration by men of the good angels is justified both by their glorification by god and their relation to men that which the council of trent teaches as to the invocation and veneration of the saints may also be applied to the angels the rejection of the veneration of the angels by saint paul colossians 2 18 refers to a false exaggerated veneration of gnostic false teachers saint justin the martyr is an early witness to the church's veneration of and finally today we have item 31 the power of the bad angels one dominion of the devil over mankind and here we have a dogma the devil possesses a certain dominion over mankind by reason of adam's sin this is a defeated dogma the devil possesses a certain dominion over mankind by reason of adam's sin the council of trent names as a consequence of adam's sin man's subjection to the power of the devil the church's belief finds liturgical expression in the ceremonies of baptism christ designates the devil as quote the prince of the the prince of this world john 12 31 14 and 30. saint paul calls him quote the god of this world and quote second corinthians 4 4 by christ's redemptive act the dominion of the devil was in principle cons was in principle conquered john 12 31 says quote now shall the prince of this world be cast out and quote hebrews 2 14 he took flesh and blood quote that through death he might destroy him who had the empire of death that is to say the devil end quote compare colossians 1 13 to 15 first john and first john 3 8. in the general judgment the dominion of the devil will be completely and finally broken two forms of the activity of the dominion of the devil a the evil spirits seek to do moral injury to mankind through temptation to sin first peter 5 8 says quote be sober and watch because your adversary the devil as a roaring lion goeth about seeking whom he may devour and quote compare matthew 13 25 and 39 the cockle in the wheat ephesians 6 and c ephesians 6 12. biblical examples are the fall through sin of biblical examples are the fall through sin of the first parents cain's thatcher side judas's betrayal peter's denial ananias's lie and an isis lie man's will is not forced to sin by the temptation of the devil but retains its natural freedom the evil enemy can tempt which god in his wisdom permits compare first corinthians 10 13 which says quote god will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able unquote be the bad spirits seek to harm mankind physically also through the causing of physical evil in latin infestatio compare tobit 3 8 job 1 12 2 6 and first corinthians 5 5. see a particular kind of demoniac infestation is possession called in latin obsession or possession in which the evil spirit takes forcibly possession of the human body so that the bodily organs and the lower powers of the soul but not the higher powers of but not the higher powers of the soul are dominated by him the possibility and reality of possession is firmly established by the express testimony of christ who himself drove out evil spirits and many biblical references given there from the new testament compare the church's exorcisms also the rationalistic viewpoint of the rationalistic viewpoint that the possessed mentioned in holy were merely ill in mind and body and that jesus accommodated himself to the jewish belief in demons is incompatible with the dignity of the divine word and with the veracity and sanctity of the son of god in the determination of demoniac influences credulity must be avoided as much as rationalistic unbelief since the causing of physical evils is an extraordinary form of diabolical diabolic intervention it must first be ascertained whether these ills can be explained by natural reasons towards the end of the middle ages the tendency to ascribe any kind of remarkable phenomena to the work of the devil led to the lamentable aberration of witch hunts the opinion vouched for by most of the older christian authors including pastor herme i guess that's the shepherd of hermes i think i figured out who that is origin saint gregory nisa st john cassian and by the school men including petrus lombardis and by individual theologians of modern times including suarez and shiban that from birth every person has been allocated a bad angel in order to constantly in order constantly to excite him to evil opposite to the angel guardian lacked an adequate lacks an adequate basis in the sources of faith and is also hardly compatible with the goodness and mercy of god the passages in holy writ which are generally cited in this regard are not valid proofs most passages are john 13 2 psalm 108 6 zechariah 3 1 job 1 2 1 to 2 and 2nd corinthians 12 7. so we think about uh if you've ever seen the flintstones where there's the little demon and the little angel on each shoulder the conscience is not how did he say it it's not compatible with the goodness and mercy of god so that's just not right so next time i will cover i will start book 3 the doctrine of god so as expected as promised i covered today and next time we'll look at the doctrine of god the redeemer exciting exciting stuff thanks for being there and i will hopefully have some time tomorrow if not then uh sunday thanks for being there take care of thanks for being there take care of yourselves and we'll talk soon god bless

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