Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.15) - 3.2.1 to 3.2.14

Author Streamed Sunday November 7th, 2021

There are 18 episodes in the Live:Fundamentals series.

Streamed September 23rd, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.02) - 1.1.1 to 1.1.7

Streamed September 19th, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

From:Book 3, Part 2, Item 1to:Book 3, Part 2, Item 14of:Fundamentals of Catholic Dogmaby:Dr. Ludwig Ott


Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.15) - 3.2.1 to 3.2.14

Author Streamed September 12th, 2021

audio


video

transcript
These YouTube transcripts are generated automatically and are therefore unformatted and replete with errors.
i think i'm live so we're gonna pick up where i left off last time we're starting on part two the doctrine of the work of the redeemer this might be a little bit of a longer session because i want to complete let me settings here to configure my focus i don't want autofocus so it's no longer trying to do the autofocus thing so yeah it might be a bit of a longer session because i'm going to go all the way up too item 14 there all the way up to christ's ascension into heaven we have part two work of the redeemer chapter one the redemption in general item on the purpose of the incarnation and here we have a dogma the son of god became man in order to redeem men it's a defeat a dogma the son of god became man in order to redeem men who for us man and for our salvation descended from heaven and was made flesh holy writ testifies that christ came into the world to save all men to redeem them from their sins the prophet isaiah prophesied in the old covenant covenant saying quote god himself will come and save you and quote that from isaiah 35 4 the name jesus indicates his redemptive task compare matthew 1 21 which says quote thou shalt call his name jesus for he shall save his people from their sins end quote the angel proclaimed the birth of christ to the shepherds of bethlehem with the words quote for this day is born to your savior who is christ the lord in the city of david and quote that from luke 2 11. the prophet simeon praised god for the grace of being permitted to see the salvation of all peoples quote because my eyes have seen thy salvation which thou has prepared before the face of peoples amen end quote luke 2 30 and following jesus himself designated it as his task quote to seek and to save that which was lost end quote see luke 19 10 and compare matthew 9 13. the apostle saint paul summarizes christ's life work in the words quote jesus christ or christ jesus came into the world to save sinners and quote that from one timothy 1 15. similarly john 3 17 says quote god sent not his son into the world to judge the world but that the world may be saved by him end quote holy scripture suggests another purpose of the incarnation that is the glory of god which is the supreme and ultimate purpose of all god's works compare luke 2 14 which says quote glory be to god in the highest and quote in his prayer as high priest jesus says quote i have glorified thee on earth i have finished the work which thou gavest me to do and quote that from john 17 4. item two controversy as to the conditioned or unconditioned predestination of the incarnation there's a controversy between the thomas and the scottists as to whether the prime motive of the incarnation of the son of god was the redemption of mankind so that without the fault of the first parents the incarnation would not have taken place conditioned predestination of the incarnation or whether it was the glory of god in the scotus view the son of god in order to crown the work of the creation would have become man even without the fall but in an impassable body this is unconditioned or absolute predestination of the incarnation the conditioned predestination of the incarnation is taught by the thomas the unconditioned by the scorists and even before scotus by isaac of nineveh nineveh seventh century robert uh rupert rather of deutsch saint and saint albert the great and by many modern theologians one conditioned predestination the testimony of holy favors the tomistic view references are given to the summa in numerous passages it names the redemption of mankind from sin as the motive of the incarnation while it never mentions that the incarnation would have occurred even without the fall the fathers are unanimous in teaching that the incarnation of the son of god was solely to redeem mankind saint augustine says quote if mankind had not fallen the son of man would not have come why did he come into the world to save sinners there was no other reason for his coming into the world and quote and the references are given two unconditioned predestination the scotus seek a biblical basis for their view in the teaching of saint paul that the whole creation is coordinated to christ as its destination and head compare colossians 1 15-19 however it must be observed that in the verses 15-17 in which christ is represented as the quote firstborn of every creature unquote as the as the creator of the universe including the angel world as the goal of creation and as conservator of the world the fact of the incarnation is entirely percented from so that he appears as the goal of the creation not as man but but as god since it is as god that he is the creator so it is also as god that he is the goal of the creation the position of the head which is attributed to him in verse 18 in regard to the church has its foundation in the fact of the redemption that in god's plan christ independent of sin and redemption should take the position of head is not thereby asserted in hebrews 2 10 the relative words quote for whom are all things and by whom are all things and quote is to be understood as referring not to christ but to god the father those assertions of holy writ which make the redemption of mankind the purpose of the incarnation are regarded by the scottists as referring solely to the factual order of salvation initiated by sin in which the son of god came into the world with apostle with a passable body however it is remarkable that holy writ should be silent concerning the possibility of his coming into of his coming in an impossible condition the sp the speculative foundation of the scotus thesis is that the end cannot be of less importance than the means to the end therefore the incarnation as the most sublime of all god's works could not have been affected primarily for the purpose of saving creatures the thomas replied that the redemption is indeed the proximate purpose of the incarnation but its ultimate purpose is of course god's glory again the scotists find it inappropriate that sin which god hates should be the occasion for the most glorious revelation of god the thomas see therein all the greater and here we have the famous exultat of the vigil of easter which uh says oh felix culpa according to the scotus view all grace not only the grace of fallen mankind but also the grace of man in paradise and the grace of the angels derives from the merits of the god-man thus christ assumes a central all-transcending position in the divine world plan the thomas view is less ambitious than that of the scottists but appears to be better supported in the sources of the item three concept and possibility of the redemption one concept of the redemption we may regard the redemption objectively or subjectively objectively the redemption is the work of the redeemer subjectively the redemption is the realization of the redeemer in individual men or the application of the fruits of the redemption to individual men justification christ's work of redemption affected the salvation of humanity from the burden of sin but sin by its very nature is a turning away from god aversio adeo and a turning towards the creature conversio ad creature accordingly the work of the redemption must consist in the turning away from the creature and the turning towards god compare colossians 1 13. redemption signifies the freeing of men from the tyranny of sin and its attendant evils servitude to the devil and death as such it is called apolitosis apolitosis in lent in latin redemption which means ransoming in the narrower sense compare romans 3 24 first corinthians 1 30 ephesians 1 7 colossians 1 14 and hebrews 9 15. it also signifies the restoration of man's supernatural union with god which was destroyed by sin as such it is atonement compare romans 5 10 and following second corinthians 5 18 following colossians 1 20. the redemption objectively considered was fulfilled through the teaching and directing activity of christ in a supreme degree however it was affected by the vicarious atonement and the merits of christ in his sacrificial death on the cross through the atonement the insult offered to god by sins excuse me through the atonement the insult offered to god by sin was counterbalanced the injury to the honor of god repaired through the merits of christ the supernatural riches of salvation were occur which excuse me through the merits of christ the supernatural riches of salvation were acquired which are to be dispensed in two possibility of redemption the possibility of the redemption through christ's atonement and through his merits derives from his human divine constitution in virtue of which he is the mediator between god and mankind first timothy 2 5 says quote there is one god and but one mediator between god and man the man jesus christ who gave himself a redemption for all and quote and hebrews 9 15 says quote he is the mediator of the new testament end quote references are given to denzinger there in the ontological and ethical order that is in the order of being and activity the god man jesus christ is the is the natural and as such the sole mediator between god and man the supernatural mediation deriving from grace in all other than christ moses according to deuteronomy 5 5 the prophets and the apostles the priests of the old and new covenants and the angels and the saints is imperfect and support subordinated to the one natural mediation of christ christ exercised and exercises the activity of mediation through the actions of his human nature homo christus jesus in consequence of the real distinction between the two natures it was possible that he could perform mediatory acts as man and receive them as god this solves the objection that christ could not act as mediator between himself item four necessity for and freedom of the redemption one necessity from the side of man and here we have a dogma fallen man cannot redeem himself to defeat a dogma fallen man cannot redeem himself i wonder if they give the english here since all men had lost their innocence in adam's sin being made unclean and by nature children of wrath they were servants of sin and under the power of the devil and death to such an extent that neither the gentiles by the power of nature nor the jews through the letter of the mosaic law could liberate themselves or rise from that from the council of trent this dogma is contradicted by pelagianism which attributed to the power of self-redemption to free will and by modern rationalism with its in his epistle to the romans the apostle saint paul teaches that all men jews and heathens stand under the curse of sin and that they are justified by a free gift of the divine love in virtue of the redemption romans 3 23 and following says quote for all have sinned and need the glory of god meaning the grace of redemption being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in christ jesus end quote the patristic teaching is expressed in the words of saint augustine where he says quote they can sell themselves but cannot redeem themselves end quote the intrinsi the intrinsic reason for the absolute necessity of redemption for fallen man lies on the one hand in the infinity of man's guilt and on the other hand in the absolute supernaturalness of the state of grace as a deed of a creature sin is indeed finite but as insult to the infinite god it is infinite and accordingly demands an atonement of infinite value but a mere man cannot supply such an atonement see the sum and the references are given so offensea de activa and offensa de pasiva those are the latin renderings for the deed of a creature and the infinite insult to god two freedom from the side of god a and here we have a dogma god was not compelled to redeem mankind by either an internal or an external compulsion it's a scent serta dogma god was not compelled to redeem mankind by either an eternal or an external compulsion the redemption is an entirely free deed of divine love and divine mercy since even the elevation of man into the supernatural state is a free gift of divine love then all the more free all the more free is the restoration of the supernatural unity with god which was destroyed by grievous sin the apostle saint paul begins the epistle to the ephesians with a eulogy on the grace of god which so magnificently manifests itself in the redemption through jesus christ he designates the redemption as a quote mystery of the divine will which he has made known to us according to his good pleasure end quote that's ephesians 1 9 and you can compare ephesians 2 4 and following the view of saint athanasius and the reference is given that god's honor demanded the redemption is to be understood as a high appropriateness since elsewhere he decisively stresses the gratuitous nature of the redemption saint anselm of canterbury in his work why did god become man teaches that god was constrained to redeem us by reason of the immutability of his decree of blessedness for man he held that when god in spite of his foreknowledge of sin resolved from all eternity to create man and to bless him there followed from this free divine resolve a necessity to redeem mankind and here we have another dogma b even on the presupposition of the divine resolve of redemption the incarnation was not absolutely necessary so here we have a cent communist grade of certainty on this dogma even on the presumption of the divine resolve of redemption the incarnation was not absolutely necessary saint thomas like saint augustine teaches against saint anselm of canterbury that god through his omnipotence could have redeemed mankind in many other ways it would be undue limitation of the divine omnipotence wisdom and mercy if the incarnation were to be represented as the sole means of redemption god can without injury to his justice bestow forgiveness and grace on the repentant sinner even without a codine condyne meaning adequate atonement or any atonement and here we have another dogma see if god demanded a full atonement the incarnation of a divine person was necessary this is saint communist dogma if god demanded a full atonement the incarnation of a divine person was necessary so it's funny it's a dogma and it's a conditional statement the infinite insult to god inherent in grievous sin can be fully counterbalanced by an infinite none but a divine person can perform such an atonement to this extent a hypothetical that is to say conditioned necessity of the incarnation can be maintained in a wider sense one can also speak of a necessitas congruence in insofar as the incarnation of a divine person was the most appropriate means of redemption because it most gloriously reveals the perfections of god and gives the strongest motives to the striving of mankind for religious and moral perfection you can see saint john damascene for more on that and the summa references are given chapter 2 the realization of the redemption through the three offices of christ by christ's offices are understood the functions through which the purpose of the redemption was realized christ fulfilled the work of the redemption through his threefold office the teaching office the pastoral office and the sacral office the three offices are indicated in john 14 6 which says quote i am the way the truth and the life end quote and the way is the pastoral office the truth it's a teaching office and the life is the sacral office one the teaching office item five christ's teaching or prophetical office one the soteriological significance of christ's teaching office the sateriological significance of christ's teaching office flows from this that religious ignorance is a consequence of sin which came into the world through the seduction of the devil the father of lives father of lies john 8 44 compare romans 1 18 in john 1 5 and john 3 19. the redeemer who came quote to destroy the works of the devil end quote that from 1 john 3 8 and to free mankind from his slavery had first to take away from humanity the spiritual darkness stemming from sin and to bring the light of true knowledge christ bears witness to the redeeming power of truth in the words quote the truth shall make you free end quote that from john 8 32 2 christ is teacher and prophet according to the testimony of the sources of faith and here we have a dogma christ is the supreme prophet promised in the old covenant and the absolute teacher of humanity this is ascent certa dogma christ is the supreme prophet promised in the old covenant the prophecy of moses in deuteronomy 18 15 says quote the lord thy god will raise up to thee a prophet of thy nation and of thy brethren like unto me him shalt thou hear end quote that prophecy of moses is in the new testament referred to christ compare acts 3 22 and john 1 45 and john 6 14. christ designates himself as the light of the world he calls himself the truth and regards the announcing of the truth as one of his essential tasks he approves of the salutation master and lord and claims to be the sole teacher of men neither be called masters for one is your master christ in the consciousness of his unique teaching authority christ transfers his right to teach all men to others he christ transfers his right to teach all men to others his hearers speak of the powerful impression made by his teaching never did man speak like this man see john 7 46 and compare mark 1 22. there are many biblical references i'm not going to quote them all here saint paul sees in christ the ultimate and the supreme bearer of god's revelation hebrews 1 1 and following it says quote at sundry times and in diverse manners god spake in times past the fathers and by the prophets last of all in these days to us by his son end quote the fathers extol christ as the teacher of the truth saint ignatius of antioch who died about 107 calls him quote the candid mouth through which the father has spoken the truth end quote and then we have romans 8 2 our only teacher and there's some reference i'm not sure what that is you can look that up the early christian apologists in particular stressed the sublimity of the christian teaching above all human wisdom as it was revealed and guaranteed by the incarnate word divine wisdom which appeared in human form comparison justin the ultimate basis of the unique authority of christ's teaching lies in two the pastoral office item six christ's pastoral or kingly office one the sateriological significance of the purpose of christ's pastoral office was to show fallen mankind the right way to its supernatural final end while the teaching office is directed to the understanding by the preaching of divine truth the pastoral office is concerned with man's will the inculcating the demands in it of the divine law and of a spirit of obedience to god's commands two the functions of christ's pastoral office the pastoral office includes legislative judicial and punitive power accordingly christ's pastoral office manifests itself in legislation in judicial functions and in the three christ as the lawgiver and judge of mankind the council of trent declared against the teaching of luther according to which christ had not given commands but merely promises that christ is not only a redeemer but the creeds attest the kingship of the risen christ and his second coming at the general judgment the apostles cree dexter patrice the nicene creed proclaims the eternal duration of the kingdom of christ cuius regni non pope pius xi in 1925 established a special feast by the encyclical quas primas the new testament confirms the old testament prophecies of the messianic kingship biblical references are given the ange the angel gabriel announces saying quote the lord god shall give unto him the throne of david his father and he shall reign in the house of jacob forever and of his kingdom there shall be no end end quote that from luke 1 32 christ before pilate confessed himself to be a king in reply to pilate's question quote art thou a king and end quote he gives the affirmative answer saying quote thou sayest that i am a king end quote see john 18 37 but at the same time stresses the celestial character of his kingdom saying quote my kingdom is not of this world end quote biblical references are given there his royal power encompasses heaven and earth saying quote all power is given to me in heaven and on earth and quote matthew 28 18. in the apocalypse saint john calls christ quote the prince of the kings of the earth end quote that from chapter one verse five and quote king of kings and lord of lords that from chapter 19 verse 16. christ has particularly confirmed his law giving power in the promulgation of the basic law of his kingdom the sermon on the mount and in the organization of the kingdom of god on earth that is to say of the church he authoritatively decides concerning the obligation of the mosaic law gives the new law of love see john 13 34 and john 15 12 and demands strict observance of his commandments see john 14 15 15 10 and matthew 28 20. to his supreme law giving power there corresponds his supreme judicial power jesus bears witness saying quote for neither doth the father judge any man but have given all judgment to the son and quote that from john 5 22 the judgment that the son shall pass will be immediately executed saying quote and these the evil ones shall go into everlasting punishment but the just into life everlasting end quote the fathers relying on the old testament prophecies and on his own claim a tribute a tribute to christ the title of king compare the martyrium of polycarp saint remius and the references are given as early as the beginning of the second century we have a christian interpolation to psalm 95 10. dominus a ligno you can compare the barnamus letter 85 and we have other references given the king ruling from the wood of the cross is christ the king league know his word so dominus regnavit a ligno ligno is wood dominus is king ragnavi it must be reigning reign regna pope pius the 11th teaches in the encyclical quas primus that christ by reason of the hypostatic union possesses not merely an indirect but also a direct power over temporal things even though he made no no use of this during his yep three the priestly office according to the teaching of modern rationalists christ's redemptive activity had a pedagogic significance only it is limited to his teaching and his example by which man is to be moved to his personal sanctifying activity accordingly christ's efforts offer simply a support to our self-redemption according to the teaching of revelation not only did christ bring to mankind new knowledge of god and of his demands but he also removed the abyss between god and mankind which had been made by sin christ affected this reconciliation of fallen mankind with god through his priestly office seven item seven reality of christ's priestly office and here we have a dogma the god man jesus christ is a high priest this is defeated dogma the god man jesus christ is a high priest i would say he is the high priest the council of ephesus in 431 teaches with saint cyril of alexandria that the word himself stemming from god became our high priest when he became man thus as man he is a priest the council of trent declared in the old covenant christ's priesthood is foretold in psalm 109 4 which says quote the lord hath sworn and he will not repent thou art a priest forever according to the order of malchester and quote the messianic character of these words is confirmed by matthew 22 42 and following and hebrews 5 6 10 7 17 and 21 the epistle to the hebrews contains a formal treatise on christ's priesthood references are given the author points out that christ personally fulfilled all demands of the priesthood quote for every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in the things that appertain to god that he may offer up gifts and sacrifices for sins end quote chapter 5 verse 1. christ had human nature in common with us men so that he might have sympathy with our weakness weaknesses chapter 4 verse 15. he was called by god to the priesthood chapter 5 verse 5 and following for all those who obey him he is the author of a eternal salvation chapter 5 verse 9 by offering himself on the cross as a sacrifice of expiation chapter 7 verse 27 and chapter 9 verse 28 christ's priesthood is exalted over the levitic priesthood of the old covenant covenant compare the relation of melchizedek who was a model of christ to abraham according to psalm 109 4 christ was installed in the priestly office through an oath of god he possesses a priesthood which does not pass he is wholly innocent immaculate separated from all sinners he is the son of god consummated in eternity through his unique act of self-sacrifice he washed away the sins of men and there are many references given from right oh are we talking about ephesians we're talking about the book of hebrews epistle to the hebrews yes the fathers from the very beginning reiterate the thoughts of the epistle to the hebrews saint clement of rome calls christ quote the high priest of our sacrificial gifts and the reference is given saint ignatius of antioch says in regard to christ's priesthood quote good are the priests of the old covenant but better is the high priest to whom the all highest is entrusted and quote meaning jesus christ and the reference is given saint paul saint paulicarp calls jesus christ quote the eternal high priest unquote christ's priesthood begins with the hypostatic union the proper task of the priest consists in being a mediator between god and men see the summer the ontological middle position which is a presumption uh which is a presupposition for the exercise of the mediating activity belongs to christ by reason of the hypostatic union christ's priesthood is of eternal duration as the sacral dignity of christ founded in the hypostatic union remains forever and also because the operation of his priesthood endures eternally in those redeemed who enjoy forever the beatific vision again christ's sacrificial disposition as far as it consists in praise and thanksgiving endures for eternity references given to the summa for more on that item eight the exercise of the sacher total office or christ's sacrifice one concept of the sacrifice the most essential function of the sacral office is sacrifice hebrews 8 3 says quote for every high priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices end quote the council of trent declares saying quote sacrifice and priesthood are through god's ordinance so connected with each other that both existed in every order of salvation and quote in omni lege in every order is rendered in latin in omni lege means law by sacrifices understood in the widest sense the surrender of some good for the sake of a good aim the religious meaning attaching to sacrifice in the wider sense is every inner act of self-surrender to god and every outer manifestation of the inner sacrificial disposition for example prayer almsgiving mortification compare psalm 50 19 142 and hosea 14 3 and ecclesiasticus 35 4 and romans 12 1. in the narrower liturgical sense one takes sacrifice to mean an external religious act in which a gift perceptible to the senses is offered by an ordained servant of god in recognition of the absolute sovereign sovereignty and majesty of god and since the fall in atonement to god in a sacrifice we distinguish a a visible sacrificial gift res oblata which represents the thing being sacrificed be a sacrificing priest minister sacrifice who is authorized to appear before god as the representative of the community see the purpose of the sacrifice finis sacrifici which primarily consists in the recognition of the absolute majesty of god through adoration thanksgiving entreaties and secondarily in the reconciliation with god through atonement and d an act of sacrifice actio sacrifice sacrifica sacrificium visibili which represents in a way apparent to the senses the inner sacrificial disposition through the offering of the sacrificial gift that sacrificial disposition is rendered in latin sacrificium inviscibility i guess the inner inner sacrificial disposition is sacrificium inviscible to christ's sacrifice on the cross and here we have a dogma christ offered himself on the cross as a true and proper sacrifice this is a defeated dogma christ offered himself on the cross as a true and proper sacrifice the council of ephesus in 431 teaches with saint cyril of alexandria saying quote he christ offered himself for us as a sweet odor that is a pleasant sacrifice to god the father to the god and father i should say and quote i'll read that again quote he offered himself for us as a sweet odor to the god and father end quote pronoubis in adoram the doctrinal decisions of the council of trent on the holy sacrifice of the mass presuppose the sacrificial character of christ's death on the cross rationalism is opposed to this dogma according to hebrews 8 8-10 the sacrifices of the old covenant were models of the death of christ on the cross the prophet isaiah foretells not only the passion and death of the future messiah but also that he would voluntarily accept it as a guilt sacrifice for the sins of mankind compare isaiah 53 7-12 saint john the baptist the last of the prophets following isaiah sees in christ the lamb of sacrifice who took on himself the sins of all mankind in order to atone for them john 1 29 reads quote behold the lamb of god who taketh away the sins of the world end quote saint paul most clearly of all bears witness to the sacrificial character of christ's death on the cross ephesians 5 2 says quote christ hath loved excuse me christ ha christ also hath loved us and hath delivered himself for us an obligation an oblation an oblation and a sacrifice to god as a sweet odor end quote that's what the oblation and sacrifices in greek and uh offered as a sweet odor as a pleasing sacrifice they specify in parenthesis first corinthians 5 7 says quote for christ our past is sacrificed and quote romans 3 25 says quote whom god hath proposed to be a prop propitiation through faith in his blood end quote and propitiation is rendered in greek the atoning blood is however according to holy scripture sacrificial blood compare for example uh lv what's that leviticus leviticus 17 11. hebrews 9 1-10 and 18 describes the superiority of the sacrifice offered by christ on the cross over the old testament sacrifices chapter 9 verse 28 says quote so also christ was offered to exhaust the sins of many end quote compare first john 2 2 christ himself indirectly designated his death on the cross as a sacrifice for the sins of men by using the biblical sacrificial terms saying quote giving up of life end quote and quote shedding of blood end quote matthew 20 28 and mark 10 45 say quote for the son of man is not come to be administered unto but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many end quote in the inauguration of the holy eucharist he indicates the sacrificial character of his death luke 22 19 says quote this is my body which is given up for you end quote matthew 26 28 says quote this is the this is my blood of the new testament which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins end quote the fathers from the very beginning regarded christ's death on the cross as a sacrifice for the sins of mankind the author of the barnabas letter 7 3 says quote he himself wished to offer the vessel of life meaning his body as a sacrifice for our sins so that the model would be fulfilled which was given in isaac which was offered on the altar of sacrifice end quote compare saint clement of alexandria references are given and the city of god and the work of the on the trinity by saint augustine the sacrificial character of christ's death on the cross may be established speculatively in that all the demands of a sacrificial act were fulfilled christ as man was at the same time sacrificing priest and sacrificial gift as god together with the father and with the holy ghost he was also the receiver of the sacrifice the act of sacrifice consisted in the fact that christ in a disposition of the most perfect self-surrender voluntarily gave up his life to god by permitting his enemies to kill him although he had the power of preventing it compare john 10 18. item 9 the stereological importance though all christ's individual activities have redemptive value for us and as a whole composed the work of the redemption still his redemptive activity finds its apogee in the death of sacrifice on the cross on this account it is by excellence but not exclusively the efficient cause the efficient cause of our redemption one teaching of the church and here we have a dogma christ by his sacrifice on the cross has ransomed us and reconciled us with god a defeated dogma christ by a sacrifice on the cross has ransomed us and reconciled us with god the council of trent teaches that our lord offered his life on the cross for our eternal redemption saying quote is marte inter que dente de o patri oblaturus erat ut eternam elis redempti redenzionem operator en quote the same council refers to the one mediator jesus christ saying quote who in his blood has reconciled us with god made unto us justice and sanctification and redemption end quote see first corinthians 1 30 2 testimony of the sources of faith a christ christ regards the giving of his life as a redemption for many rendered in greek lead is the many in agreement with this saint paul teaches that christ gave himself up as ransom for mankind and that the effect of his death of sacrifice was our ransom first timothy 2 6 says quote who gave himself a redemption for all end quote the redemption rendered in romans 3 24 says quote being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in jesus christ end quote rendered in greek via dis compare ephesians 1 7 colossians 1 14 1st corinthians 6 20 1 first peter 1 18 and apocalypse 5 9. the slavery from which christ purchased mankind through a sacrificial death is the slavery of sin titus 2 14 says quote who gave himself for us that he might redeem us from all iniquity end quote compare ephesians 1 7 colossians 1 14 hebrews 9 12 and following the slavery of the mosaic law galatians 3 13 says quote christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law end quote compared galatians 4 5 romans 7 1 and following and the slavery of the devil colossians 1 13 says quote who hath delivered us from the power of darkness end quote compare chapter 2 verse 15 and hebrews 2 14 and the slavery of death second timothy 1 10 says quote he hath destroyed death and quote compare hebrews 2 14 and following b christ indicates the atoning power of his death in the inaugurate in the inauguration of the eucharist saying quote this is my blood of the new testament which shall be shed for the for many unto the remission of sin end quote that from matthew 26 28. saint paul ascribes the reconciliation of sinners with god that is the restoration of the original relationship of child to parent and friendship with god to christ's death excuse me romans 5 10 says quote when we were enemies we were reconciled to god by the death of his son and quote colossians 1 20 says quote it have well that is to say christ to reconcile all things to himself making peace through the blood of his cross end quote many biblical references are given there from the beginning the fathers insist on the scriptural ideas of ransom and atonement saint irenaeus appealing to the passages in the epistle to the ephesians says quote since between him christ and us there exists a community namely the community of the flesh and blood the lord reconciled mankind with god and excuse me by reconciling us through the body of his flesh and ransomed us through his blood end quote the reference is given three inadequate patristic theories of the redemption from the efforts to explain the dogma of the redemption speculatively various theories of the redemption developed in patristic times a saint irenaeus of lyon who died about 202 initiated the so-called recapitulation theory or mystic theory of redemption which starting from ephesians 1 10 teaches that christ as the second adam saved and reunited with god the whole human race and repeated recapitulation in greek is head so uh recapitulation means uh i guess restoring the head head okay so where was i in this view salvation of man had already taken place in principle through the incarnation of the son of god side by side with this theory which gave to the passion and death of christ a subordinate significance only saint irenaeus also expounds the polling teaching of the ransoming and reconciling through christ's death on who died in 254 changed the pauline teaching of man's ransom from the dominion of the devil to an unbiblical ransom theory he held that the devil by adam's sin had acquired a formal dominion over mankind in order to liberate mankind from this tyranny christ gave his life to the devil as ransom price but the devil was deceived as he was not able to maintain for long his dominion of death over christ others explained that the devil lost his dominion over mankind by unjustly trying to extend his right this right to christ also despite the fact that this error was widespread patristic teaching held firmly to the biblical teaching of man's reconciliation with god through christ's death on the cross the notion of a dominion of the devil over fallen mankind was energetically item 10 christ's vicarious atonement 1. the notion of atonement by atonement in general is understood the satisfaction of a demand in the narrower sense it is taken to mean the reparation of an insult the roman catechism is the reference given there this occurs through a voluntary performance which outweighs the injustice done if such a performance through its intrinsic about intrinsic value completely counterbalances the grievousness of guilt according to the demands of justice the atonement is adequate or of full value equivalence c ad if it is not commensurate with the grievousness of the offense and is accepted as sufficient purely out of gracious consideration it is inadequate or not of complete value if the atonement is not performed by the offender himself but by another in his stead it is vicarious atonement two reality of christ's vicarious atonement and here we have a dogma christ through his suffering and death rendered vicarious atonement to god for the sins of man this is ascent feed a proxima grade of certainty christ through his suffering and death rendered vicarious atonement to god for the sins of man the council of ephesus teaches with saint cyril of alexandria saying quote if anyone says that he christ offered the oblation for himself and not rather solely for us let him be excluded and quote the council of trent says of jesus of satisfaction satisfaction by his most holy passion on the cross offered satisfaction for us to god the father the vatican council intended to raise the teaching of christ's vicarious satisfaction to the status of a formal dogma holy writ contains the teaching of the vicarious atonement not indeed explicitly but by implication isaiah 53 4 and following foretells of the servant of god that is of the messiah that he the sinless one for our sins and in our stead would suffer and die like an innocent lamb of sacrifice to obtain for us peace and justification christ expressed the idea of the vicarious atonement in the words quote the son of man has come to give his life a redemption for many and quote that from matthew 20 28 and quote i lay down my life for my sheep end quote that from john 10 15. the notion of the vicarious atonement appears distinctly in saint paul also second corinthians 5 21 says quote him who knew no sin hath made sin for us that we might be made in the justice of god in him end quote galatians 3 13 says quote christ hath redeemed us free from the curse of the law being made a curse for us end quote according to romans 3 25 and following god's justice is revealed in the demand for and and the acceptance of christ's vicarious atonement atonement sacrifice quote to the showing of his justice end quote compare first peter 2 24 and 3 18. from the very beginning the fathers were familiar with the idea of christ's vicarious atonement the apostles disciple saint clement of rome comments saying quote for the sake of the love which he had for us our lord jesus christ according to the will of the father has given his blood for us his flesh for our flesh and his soul for our souls end quote corinthians 49 6 compare the letter to diognetists diagnose saint anselm of canterbury who died in 1199 in his dialogue cur deus homo why did why did god become man has speculatively penetrated and built up to a systematic theory of redemption the idea that the vicarious atonement of christ which is based in scripture and tradition while the fathers in the explanation of christ's work of sanctification proceed more from the contemplation of the consequences of the redemption and therefore stress the negative side of the redemption namely the ransoming from the slavery of sin and of the devil saint anselm proceeds from the contemplation of the guilt of sin this as an insult offered to god is infinite and therefore demands an infinite expiation such such expiation however can be achieved by a divine person only to be capable to be capable of thus representing mankind this person must be at the same time three the intrinsic perfection of christ's atonement and here we have a dogma a christ's vicarious atonement is adequate or of full value by reason of its intrinsic merit this is ascent community or grade of certainty christ's vicarious and here we have a dogma b christ's vicarious atonement is super abundant that is the positive value of the expiation is greater than the negative value of the sin this is cent communist grade of certainty christ's vicarious atonement is super abundant that is the positive value of the expiation is greater than the negative value of the sin pope clenet clement the sixth regard declared in the jubilee bull unigenitus de filius of the year 1343 that christ had shed his blood copiously as it were in streams even though one little drop of the blood on account of the hypostatic union with the logos would have sufficed for the redemption of the whole human in the parallel between adam and christ see romans 5 12 and following the saint paul teaches that the measure of the blessing going forth from christ far surpasses the measure of the curse going forth from adam verse 20 says quote whenever sins inc wherever sins increase their grace has become super abundantly copious i'll say that again wherever sins increase their grace has become super abundantly copious and quote saint cyril of jerusalem says quote the injustice of sinners was not so great as the justice of him who died for us we have not sinned to the extent that he transcends through righteousness who gave up his life for us and quote the references are given there and there's also uh another reference i don't understand who that is or the external perfection of christ's atonement a and here we have a dogma one christ did not die for the predestined only it's a defeated dogma christ did not die for the predestined only and two christ died not for the faithful only but for all mankind without exception this is saint fide proxima dogma so we have two dogmas in one here christ did not die for the predestination only and christ died not for the faithful only but for all mankind without exception in the year 1653 pope innocent the 10th condemned as heretical the proposition that christ died for the salvation of the predestined exclusively in the year 1690 pope alexander the eighth rejected the assertion that christ offered himself to god for the faithful only pro omnibus at solis fidelibus the council of trent laid down saying quote hence it was that the heavenly father sent his son to men that he might redeem the jews who were under the law and that the gentle gentiles who followed not after justice might receive justice and that all might receive the adoption of sons him god hath proposed to be a propitiation through faith in his blood for our sins and not alone for ours but for those of the whole world end quote holy scripture clearly teaches the universality of the deed of redemption and with it indirectly the atonement of christ first john 2 2 says quote he christ is the propitiation for our sins and not for ours only but for the sins of the whole world end quote and biblical references are given second corinthians 5 15 says quote he died for us all end quote and first corinthian first timothy 2 6 says quote he gave himself a redemption for all end quote compare romans 5 18. the fathers living before the outbreak of the pelagian controversy unanimously teach both the generality of god's will of sanctification and the generality of christ's vicarious atonement saint columbus saint clement of rome writes quote let us behold the blood of christ and let us realize how precious it is to god his father because it shed for our salvation has brought the grace of repentance to the whole world his letter to the corinthians 4 7. compare saint irenaeus and the references given on good friday the commemorative day of christ death of redemption the church prays for the salvation of all mankind the universality of christ's vicarious atonement refers to the objective redemption only christ made sufficient atonement for all men without exception the subjective appropriation of the fruits of redemption is however dependent on the fulfillment of certain conditions on faith and on the observation of the commandments accordingly the schoolman distinguished between sufficiency of the atonement and teach that christ offered atonement for all mankind secundum sufficient but not secundum efficacy in other words in acto primo christ's atonement is universal in acto in actu second okay let me say it again in acto primo christ's atonement is universal in actu secundo and the references are given to the i think this is probably a dogma by the way it's in bold face but there's no indication of that christ's atonement does not extend to the fallen angels the teaching of origin according to which the restoration of all things by virtue of christ's atonement will also liberate the fallen angels out of hell was rejected as heresy by a synod at constantinople it contradicts the eternal nature of pains of hell which is clearly attested in holy writ and biblical references are given there item 11 christ's merits one the notion of merit by merit is understood a work completed for the benefit of another on whom it establishes a claim for reward or the claim for rewards founded on the work according as the reward is due in justice or merely out of graciousness christ's work of redemption is at one in the same time satisfactory and meritorious inasmuch as on the one hand it removes the relationship of guilt between humanity and god and on the other hand establishes a two meritoriousness of christ's passion and death and here we have a dogma christ through his passion and death merited reward from god it's a defeated dogma christ through his passion and death merited reward from god the council of trent teaches that the origin of the merit of christ's justification is that he through his most holy passion has the same counsel lays down that original sin is removed by the merits of jesus christ only and that through baptism the merits of christ are applied to adults and children holy writ does not use the word merit but it explicitly teaches the doctrine of christ's merit compare philippians 2 9 which says for which cause becoming obedient to death god hath exalted him and quote hebrews 2 9 says quote we see jesus for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor end quote exaltation is the reward for his meritoriousness of christ's actions may be speculatively established by a reason of the fact that all the conditions of a true and proper merit were fulfilled they were free morally good supernatural performed in the state of earthly pilgrimage and in the state of grace and had the divine promise of reward see isaiah 53 10. as actions of a divine person they possessed an infinite meritorious value infinite christie merita as the whole life work of christ not merely his passion and death has an atoning value it is meritorious also three object of christ's merit and here we have a dogma hey christ's christ merited for himself the condition of exaltation resurrection transfiguration of the body ascension into heaven this is ascent certa dogma christ merited for himself the condition of exaltation compare philippians 2 8 and following hebrews 2 9 john 17 4 luke 24 26 apocalypse 5 12. the latin fathers relying on philippians 2 8 and following speak of the merits of humility and of obedience and designate the glorification of christ as his reward and remuneration st hillary of poitiers says quote on account of the merit of humility of humanity he recovers the form of god in the lowliness which he assumed and quote saint augustine comments saying quote through humiliation he merited the transfiguration transfiguration is the reward for humiliation end quote umilitas claritatis est meritum claritas tatis es premium the references are given and also references to the summa b and here's another dogma christ merited all supernatural graces received by christ merited all supernatural graces received by fallen mankind the decretum pro-jacobetis declares quote nobody has been freed from the power of the devil except through the merits of the mediator jesus christ i quote according to the teaching of the council of trent quote no one can be just to whom the merits of christ's passion have not been communicated and quote it is a fundamental doctrine of saint paul that salvation can be acquired only by the grace merited by christ biblical references are given the apostle saint peter testified before the high council saying quote neither is there salvation in any other end quote see acts 4 12. the fathers designate supernatural grace as grazia de pere jesus christum or grazia christi the word maritum is applied in patristic literature to the merit which christ moving on chapter 3 the glorious conclusion of christ's work of redemption christ's exaltation item 12 christ's descent into hell and here we have a dogma after his death christ's soul which was separated from his body descended into the underworld this is a defeated dogma after his death christ's soul which was separated from his body descended into the underworld the underworld is the place of detention for the souls of the just of the pre-christian era the so-called vestibule of hell limbo of others the later version of the apostles creed from the fifth century contains the article descended in similarly the cree creed the fourth lateran council in 1215 more his soul only the doctrine of christ's descent into hell does not as rationalism maintains draw its inspiration from heathen myths but from the old testament revelation of the intermediate condition between death and resurrection in which the departed souls sojourn in the underworld sheol in regard to his stay in the underworld during the period between death and resurrection jesus says quote for as jonas was in the whale's belly three days and three nights so shall the son of man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights end quote that in matthew 12 40. the expression heart of the earth rendered in greek carvilla yes cardia like you think of cardiology carl dia that's the greek does not signify the grave but the underworld which was visualized as being localized in the interior earth as it were in its heart this interpretation is supported by the parallel to john excuse me jonas 2 3 as well as by the old testament visualization that the point of departure of the resurrection is the underworld a place of detention of the departed souls saint peter speaking of christ's resurrection says quote god hath raised him up having loosed the sorrows of hell of the empire of death as it was impossible that he should be holden by end quote acts 2 24 the dissolution of the blasts of death according to another way of reading of the winds of hades is a symbol of the compare fourth book of esdras 441 and colossians 1 18 which says quote the firstborn from the dead referring to the psalm passage 15 10 which says quote thou thou wilt not leave my soul in hell nor will thou give thy holy one to see corruption end quote we read quote foreseeing this he david spoke of the resurrection of christ for neither was he left in hell neither did his flesh see corruption and quote that from acts 2 31 saint paul in romans 10 6 and following bears witness to christ stay in the underworld saying quote but the justice which is of faith speaketh thus say not in thy heart who shall ascend into heaven that is to bring christ down or down or who or who shall descend into the deep that is to bring christ again from the dead end quote of note also is the formula which was in frequent use quote to raise up or to awaken or to awake from the dead end quote necron so we think of uh we have lots of english words with necrophilia for example that's the greek word necron and which in its application to christ asserts that his soul before the resurrection was in the empire of the dead that is in the underworld in passage the passage if he's in ephesians 4 9 says quote he ascended what is it but because he also descended into the lower parts of the earth and booked is according to the context to be understood not of christ's descent into the underworld but of his descent in the incarnation from heaven into the lower parts of the earth the interpretation of the passage 1 peter 3 19 and following says quote in which in the spirit also coming he preached to those spirits that were in prison which had been some time in the days of noah incredulous unquote is uncertain however the uncertainty refers not so much to the fact as to the purpose of dissent to the underworld tradition unanimously bears witness to the fact of christ's descent into the underworld sent saint ignatius of antioch writes that christ had quote awakened the prophets from the dead who were his disciples in spirit and who awaited him as their teacher on his arrival and quote and the reference is given saint justin and saint irenaeus quote an apocryphal passage in jeremiah in which they see christ's descent into hell clearly foretold quote the lord the holy god of israel before him of his dead who slept in the earth of the grave and he went down to them in order to announce to them the salvation end quote saint augustine attests the general belief in the church when he says quote who other than an unbeliever can deny that christ was in the underworld end quote the reference is given further the apocryphal literature witnesses to the church belief in christ's descent into hell compare the odes of solomon a christian composition of the second century number 17 and 42 the purpose of the descent into hell was according to the general teaching of the theologians the freeing of the just in limbo by the application of the fruits of the redemption that is by the communication of the beatific vision and references given to the summa and the roman catechism item 13 christ's resurrection number one dogma on the third day after his death christ rose gloriously from the dead this is a de fe de dogma on the third day after his death christ rose gloriously from the dead the resurrection of christ is a basic truth of christianity which is expressed in all the symbols of faith and in all rules of faith of the ancient church christ as the 11th synod of toledo in 675 emphasizes rose through his own the source of his resurrection is the hypostatic union the principal cause of the resurrection was the word together with the father and the holy ghost the instrumental cause was the parts of the humanity of christ soul and body which were hypostatically united with the godhead when holy writ for example acts 2 24 galatians 1 1 asserts that christ was awakened by god or by the father these assertions are to be taken as referring to his humanity compare the roman catechism and the reference is given all forms of rationalism in ancient and modern times deny christ's resurrection and some of those forms of rationalism include deceit hypothesis apparent death hypothesis and the vision hypothesis compare the to foundation in the old testament christ's resurrection is according to the exposition of saint peter and saint paul acts 2 24 and following 13 35 following announced in psalm 15 10 quote because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell nor will thou give thy holy one to see corruption end quote the resurrection of the messiahs is presupposed also in isaiah 53 10 the servant of god who has given himself as a sacrifice for guilt shall see a long lived seed and execute the plan of the lord christ definitely prophesied that he would rise from the dead on the third day after his death the references are given there the reality of the resurrection is proved by the fact of the empty tomb a furtive removal of the corpse was in the circumstances out of the question and of the many appearances during which jesus spoke with his disciples allowed himself to be touched by them and ate with them exceed the biblical references christ's resurrection is the center of the apostolic doctrinal teaching the apos the apostles give forceful testimony of the resurrection of the lord jesus christ and we can see many references from the bible the body of the risen christ was in a the body of the risen christ was in a state of glory as is apparent from a study of the circumstances of the appearances and from the risen christ's supremacy over the bonds of space and time the risen christ retained the wounds put in his transfigured body as tokens of his triumph over death john 20 27 says quote put thy finger hither and see my hands and bring hither thy hand and put it into my side and be not faithless but believing end quote the fathers attest the resurrection of the lord with the great with great emphasis and with a complete unanimity against heathen materialism and against the jewish unbelief three significance for christ himself the resurrection was the entry into the condition of glory which was the reward for his self-abasement in suffering from the sateriological point of view the resurrection unlike christ's death is not the meritorious cause of our redemption but it is the victorious completion of the work of redemption it belongs however to the completeness of the redemption and is therefore associated in the holy scriptures with the death on the cross as one complete whole compare romans 4 25 it is the model of our spiritual resurrection from sin see romans 6 3 and following and the model and the pledge of the resurrection of our bodies see first corinthians 15 20 and following and philippians 3 21. from the apologetic point of view the resurrection is the greatest of all christ's miracles and as the fulfillment of prophecy the strongest proof of the truth of his teaching compare first corinthians 15 14 and item 14 christ's ascension into heaven number one dogma christ ascended body and soul into heaven and sits at the right hand of the father this is a defeated dogma christ ascended body and soul into heaven and sits at the right hand of the father all creeds in agreement with that of the dexter patrice omnipotentis the put furmiter says more in at incarnate christ ascended into heaven of his own power and indeed as god in divine power and as man in the power of his transfigured soul which moves his transfigured body as it will in regard to the human nature of christ no uh excuse me in regard to the human nature of christ one can also following the scriptures assert that it was taken up or elevated into heaven by god the biblical references are given in the roman catechism reference rationalism is opposed to this dogma and seeks to explain the origin of the belief in the ascension by a borrowing from the old testament see genesis 5 24 carrying off of enoch and or four kings i guess that's second chronicles 211 with the ascension of or elijah or from pagan mythology but in doing so omits to see the basic differences mm-hmm yes this is why i always laugh at people that make comparisons we see some they want to see similarities but they omit to see basic differences similarity if there be such by no means signifies dependence the definite testimony of the apostolic era leaves no room for the formation of legends amen foundation number two foundation christ foretold his ascension biblical references are given and accomplished this on the 40th day after his resurrection in the presence of many witnesses 16 19 says quote and the lord jesus after he had spoken to them was taken up into heaven and sitteth on the right hand of god end quote see luke 24 51 in first peter 3 22. the fathers give unanimous testimony of christ's ascension all the ancient rules of faith mention it together with the death and the resurrection comparison irenaeus and tertullian origen and the references are all there the biblical expression quote to sit at the right hand of god and end quote which goes back to psalm 109 1 and which is frequently used in the epistle of the apostles romans 8 34 ephesians colossians hebrews 1st peter and the references are there asserts that christ elevated in his humanity over all the angels and saints takes up a place of honor and participates in the honor and glory and in the jurisdictive and judicial power of god compare saint john of damascus and the references given three significance from the christological angle the ascension means the final elevation of christ's human nature into the condition of divine glory from the satiriological angle it is the crowning conclusion of the work of the redemption according to the general teaching of the church the souls of the just of the pre-christian era also moved with the savior into the glory of heaven compare ephesians 4 8 which says after psalm 67 19 quote he ascended on high he led captivity captive end quote shendin's in altum captiva captivitatam in heaven he prepares a place for his own see john 14 2 and following he intercedes for them see hebrews 7 25. quote always living to make intercession for them and quote or according to the vulgate for us see hebrews 9 24 romans 8 34 and first john 2 1 and sends them his gifts of grace especially the holy ghost john 14 16 and 16 7. at the end of the world he is to come again with great power and glory to judge the world matthew 24 30. christ's ascension is the archetype and the pledge of our own ascension into heaven ephesians 2 6 says quote through jesus christ and quote that is on account of our mystic unity with christ the head quote he hath raised us up together and hath made us sit together in the beautiful beautiful teachings of a beautiful church and i will continue next time hopefully next weekend with part three the mother of the redeemer i can't wait it's exciting stuff amen so that's it thanks for listening thanks for watching and we'll talk very soon have a good and we'll talk very soon have a good week god bless

transcript2
These ReWatch transcripts are also generated automatically and are therefore sometimes improperly unformatted and replete with errors.