Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

Author Streamed Sunday September 19th, 2021

There are 18 episodes in the Live:Fundamentals series.

Streamed September 23rd, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.02) - 1.1.1 to 1.1.7

Streamed September 19th, 2021

Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

This is the first proper reading in a long series of livestreams in which I will read and comment on The Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, by Dr. Ludwig Ott.


Ott's Fundamentals (Ep.01) - Introduction

Author Streamed September 12th, 2021

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okay i'm live i'm gonna jump right into the and we'll pick up where we left off with episode zero this is episode one ludwig arts fundamentals of catholic dogma i'm gonna read the introduction today number one concept number one concept the word theology according to its uh etymology means teaching concerning god excuse me theology thus theology is the science of god number two object the material object of theology is firstly god and secondly created things under the aspect of their relation to god i'm not going to read all the latin so i'll just skip that you can read that on the screen if you want pause and read it translate it continuing with the english in sacred science all things are considered under the aspect of god either because they are god himself or because they refer to god as their beginning and end as regards the formal object a distinction must be made between natural and supernatural theology natural theology was first first expounded by plato it is called by saint augustine in agreement with varro theologia naturalis and since the 19th century it is also called theodicy it is the scientific exposition of the truths concerning god insofar as these can be known by natural reason and thus may be regarded as the culmination of supernatural theology is the scientific exposition of the truths about god under the light of divine revelation the formal object of natural theology is god as he is known by natural reason from creation the formal object of supernatural theology is god as he is known by faith from revelation this again from the city natural and supernatural theology differ a in their principles of cognition unaided human reason razio naturalis reason eliminated by faith razio fide lu strata be in their means of their means of cognition the study of created things divine revelation see in their formal objects god as creator and lord i'm gonna dwell on that at all much to say about that these are some definitions and categorizations number two theology as a science excuse me the scientific character of theology according to a according to the teachings of saint thomas theology is a true science because it because it uses principle it uses as principles the securely founded basic truths of divine revelation and draws from these new knowledge theological conclusions by a strict scientific method and unites the whole in a closed system but theology is a subordinate side science because its principles are not immediately evident to us in over from a higher science from the truth communicated to it communicated to compare for example uh saint thomas says sacred doctrine is a science because it proceeds from principles established by the light of a higher science namely the knowledge possessed by god and by the continuing now the questions posed by the schoolman were exclusively those pertaining to speculative theology the development of historical research at the beginning of the modern era led to an extension of the concept of science which permits its application to by science in the objective sense is understood today a system of methodically worked out knowledge about a unitary object theology possesses a unitary object uses a mythological methodological meth methodical excuse me uses a methodical process adapted to the object and unites its results in a closed system the dependence of theology upon divine authority and that of the church does not derogate from its scientific character because theology belongs to the revealed truth given by god into the hands of the church and therefore these cannot be dissociated from the object of theology b theology transcends all other sciences by the sublimity of its object by the supreme certainty of its knowledge which is based on the infallible knowledge of god and by its practical purpose which is eternal bliss i.e the ultimate destination of mankind so i just want to say i always make reference not always but often make reference explicitly to the hierarchy of the sciences you've got god who is knowledge itself big s science then you've got theology then you've got philosophy and of course the natural sciences beneath that there's a hierarchy and it's interesting to note here the purpose of philosophy is happiness and that's reflected in this uh note b here where it says the practical purpose is eternal bliss the ultimate destination of mankind and that's uh directly from saint thomas aquinas theologica the reference is there if you want to follow it up according to saint thomas theology is both a speculative and practical science since in the light of divine truth it contemplates on the one hand god the first truth and things in the relation to god and on the other hand it contemplates the moral actions of man in relation to his supernatural ultimate goal speculative theology is the more noble since theology is concerned above all above all with divine truth thus the final aim even of moral theology is to bring men to the perfection of the knowledge of god again that from the summa the medieval franciscan school appraises theology primarily as a practical or effective science because theological knowledge by its very nature is aimed at moving the affections or the will the main object of moral theology is the moral perfection of man and here we have as the reference saint bonaventure interesting we've got right away in the introduction a sort of two-fold uh sourcing from to mystic school in the franciscan school you're gonna see that a lot i think because this is these are the two main schools of thought in uh dogmatic theology a lot of uh comparing and contrasting of ideas that we might see i don't recall when i first read this back in 2010 i don't recall that distinction but since that time since 2010 i've gone on to become more interested in the uh franciscan school than that mystic school hence my emphasis on blessed john dunst for example saint bonaventure is a little bit too difficult for me to read i've tried reading i just have a hard time even scottish it's hard uh st thomas is relatively easy compared to either the now uh where the ultimate reason for the various answers to the problem lies in the various estimations of the hierarchy of the powers of the human soul saint thomas and his school with aristotle recognize the primacy of the intellect the franciscan school with saint you all know if you're a listener of my podcast you know that i'm a huge huge fan of saint augustine st augustine and so i will always have a little bit of attention toward the us the augustinian school and that's uh toward the franciscan theology is wisdom this is theology is wisdom since its object is god the ultimate origin of all things it is the supreme wisdom since it contemplates god the ultimate origin in the light of the truths of revelation communicated to man from the wisdom of number two a science of faith theology is a science of faith it is concerned with faith in the objective sense that which is believed and in the subjective sense that by which we believe theology like faith accepts as the sources of its knowledge holy writ and tradition and also the doctrinal assertions of the church the proximate rule of faith in so we have a certain proximity to the church being sons and daughters of the church but behind that is the remote rule of the faith which is the sacred deposit of faith which the church guards and defends and presents and unpacks for us the church being the proximate rule of faith but as a science of faith it seeks but as a science of faith it seeks by human reason to penetrate the content and the context of the supernatural system of truth and to understand this as far as possible saint augustine expresses this thought in the words believe that you may understand saint and some of canterbury another one of my favorites the second augustine they call him saint anselm of canterbury with these words faith seeking to reach the intellect that from the pros logion in the premium and i believe that i may understand that taken from the pros logon richard of saint victor with the words let us hasten from faith to knowledge let us endeavor so far as we can to understand that which we believe so we see there's a quite a tradition an impressive tradition moving on number three classification theology is a unitary science as it has a single formal object god and the created world insofar as they are the objects of divine revelation as revelation is a communication of the divine knowledge so theology is in the words of saint thomas a stamp or impression imposed by the divine knowledge which is unitary and absolutely simple on the created human spirit theology is however divided into various branches and departments according to its various functions which are all subdivisions of the one theological science here we have a short list of them a dogmatic theology which includes fundamental theology i.e the basis of dogmatic theology b biblical historical theology biblical introduction hermeneutics exegesis church history history of dogmas history of liturgy church legal history petrology and see practical theology moral theology church law pastoral theology including catechetics moving on to section three concept and method of dogmatic theology number one concept on the ground of its proposition to the faithful by the church the whole field of supernatural theology could be called dogmatic theology in point of fact however only the theoretical truths of revelation concerning god and his activity are dealt with in dogmatic the science of things to be believed while the practical teachings of revelation regulating the activity of men are the object of moral theology the science of things to be done and then um i see so he's comparing and contrasting those two i'll read that again in point of fact however the only theoretical truths of revelation concerning god and his activity are dealt with in dogmatic theology on the one hand the signs of things that we believed while practical teachings of revelation regulating the activity men on the other hand are the object of moral theology the science of things to be done thus dogmatic theology can with sheban not sure who sheban is i guess he wrote a book on dogmatic theology they can be defined as the scientific exposition of the whole theoretical doctrine revealed by god about god himself and his activity and which we accept on the authority of the church so dogmatic theology can be defined as sheban defined it as the scientific exposition of the whole theoretical doctrine revealed by god about god himself and his activity which we accept on the authority of the church two method the method of dogmatic theology is both positive and speculative positive dogmatic theology is concerned with doctrines that have been proposed for our belief by the teaching authority of the church dogmatic factor and that are contained in the sources of biblical traditi biblical patristic factor so the biblical metristic factor on the one hand and the dogmatic factor on the other hand are being compared and contrasted here in terms of method the positive method and the speculative method the positive dogmatic theology is concerned with doctrines that have been proposed to our belief by the teaching authority of the church that's the dogmatic factor and that are contained in the sources of revelation scripture biblic patristic factor insofar as it defends the doctrine of the church against false conceptions it becomes controversial theology apologetic or polemic factor so we're still defining and categorizing different approaches to dogmatic theology speculative dogmatic theology which is identical with the so-called scholastic theology so when i say scholastic theology i have a vague notion of what it is but here it's being defined as a speculative dogmatic theology and it strives as far as possible for an insight into the truths of faith by the application of human reason to the content of revelation the positive and speculative methods must not be separated from each other the ideal lies in the harmonious coalescence of authority and reason this is indeed expressly prescribed by ecclesiastical authority pope pius xi in apostolic institution deus ciantaram tiaram dominus 1931 directs that sacred theology is to be presented according to the positive as well as to the scholastic method the speculative exposition is to proceed according to the principles and number four section four concept and classification number one concept by dogma in the strict sense is understood a truth immediately in brackets formally revealed by god which has been proposed by the teaching authority of the church to be believed as such all those things are to believe excuse me all those things are to be believed by divine and catholic faith which are contained in the word of god written or handed down and which are proposed for our belief by the church either in a solemn definition or in its ordinary and universal two factors or elements may be distinguished in the concept of dogma a an immediate divine revelation of the particular dogma for example uh or that is to say the dogma must be immediately revealed by god either explicitly or inclusively and therefore be contained in the sources of revelation that's an immediate divine revelation revealed by god and therefore contained in the sources that's the first be the second one the promulgation of the dogma by the teaching authority of the church this is the second one because there's an immediate divine revelation and the second one is the promulgation of the of the dogma by the teaching authority of the church this implies not merely the promulgation of the truth but also the obligation on the part of the faithful of believing the truth this promulgation by the church may be made either in an extraordinary manner through a solemn decision of faith made by the pope or a general counsel or through the ordinary and general teaching power of the church the letter the latter rather may be found easily in the catechisms issued by the in this view which is the usual one and which is principally expounded by the thomas the truth proposed in the dogma must be immediately and formally contained in the sources of revelation either explicitly or implicitly according to another opinion however which is held by the scotists so here we have the franciscan school again blessed john don scotus according to another opinion however which is held by the scotus and also by several dominican theologians a truth can be proposed as a dogma if it be only immediately or virtually contained in the sources of revelation that is in such a manner that it may be derived from a truth or revelation by the aid of a truth known by natural reason the scotus view permits greater room for play in the formal action of the teaching the teaching authority and makes it easier to prove that the dogma is contained in the sources of revelation but its validity is challenged on the ground that the truth of the dogma is supported not solely by the authority of the revealing god but also by the natural knowledge of reason while the church demands for the dogma a divine faith so there's a bit of tension between these two schools for that reason dogma in its strict significa signification is the object of both divine faith fides davina and catholic faith fides catholica it is the object of divine faith by reason of its divine revelation it is the object of catholic faith on account of its infallible doctrinal definition by the church if a baptized person deliberately denies or doubts a dogma properly so called he is guilty of the sin of heresy and automatically becomes subject to the so much for protestantism if despite the fact that a truth is not proposed for belief by the church one becomes convinced that it is immediately revealed by god then according to the opinion of many theologians one is bound to believe it with divine faith however most theologians teach that such a truth prior to its official proposition of the church is to be accepted with theological ascent only i think that's the position i'm in with my young earth creationism for the time i number two protestant and modernistic conception a protestantism rejects the teaching authority of the church and consequently also the authoritative proposition of the content of revelation by the church it claims that the biblical revelation attests itself in spite of this and for the sake of unity of doctrine a certain connection is recognized between dogma and the authority of the church and here we have a quote dogma is the valid teaching of the church this by a gentleman by the name of w alert i just assumed his gender i guess might be a lady i don't know the liberal movement of the newer protestantism rejects not only the authoritative doctrinal proclamation of the church but also the objective divine revelation by conceiving revelation as a subjective religious experience in which the soul enters into contact with god so we're getting some sort of fidaism i think here and you've got your holy spirit i've got my holy spirit and everyone's a pope b according to alfred luazi who died in 1940 the conceptions which the church represents as revealed dogmas are not truths which have come from heaven and which have been preserved by religious tradition in the exact form in which they first appeared the historian sees in them the interpretation of religious facts acquired by the toil of theological mental labor the foundation of the dogma is according to the modernistic viewpoint subjective religious experience in which god reveals himself to man the religious factor that reveals himself to man the religious factor the totality of religious experiences penetrated by theological science and expressed by it indefinite formularies and this is called the intellectual factor a formulary of this kind is then finally approved by the church authority and thus declared a dogma in parenthesis this is the authoritative factor pope pius the tenth has condemned this doctrine in the decretum lament lamentably 1907 and in the end cycle encyclical paschendi 1907 i hear both of those thrown around as against modernism the catholic church stresses that dogma according to its content is of truly divine origin that it that is it is the expression of an objective truth quite different from the modernist through three classification dogmas are classified a according to their content as general dogmas and special dogmas to the former belong the fundamental truth of christianity general dogmas to the latter special dogmas the individual truths contained b according to the relation with reason they are distinguished as pure dogmas and mixed dogmas the former we know solely through divine revelation for example the trinity the trinity it's in brackets it says mysteries the latter which are known as a mixed dogmas the latter by natural reason also for example the existence of god we can know the existence of god by natural reason so it's called a mixed dogma it's not a pure dogma it's a mixed dogma c according to the mode by which the church proposes them as formal dogmas and material dogmas the former formal dogmas are proposed for belief by the teaching authority of the church as truths of revelation the latter are not so proposed but excuse me the latter are not so proposed for which reason they are not dogmas in this strict sense so formal dogmas are dogmas and material dogmas are kinda sort of dogmas they're so i guess it might be the case that it's a material dogma that uh evolution is not the case and the young earth creation is in this case that the final way of uh categorizing is we've got point d here according to their relation with salvation as necessary dogmas on the one hand and non-necessary dogmas on the other hand the former necessary dogmas must be explicitly believed by all in order to be to achieve eternal salvation the so every catholic must believe the necessary dogmas but implicit faith suffices for the non-necessary section five the development one heretical notion of dogmatic development the liberal protestant concept of dogma and here they give a reference to harnack as well as modernism and here they mention luazi assumes a substantial development of dogmas so the liberal protestant concept of dogma assumes a substantial development of dogmas so that the content of dogma changes radically in the course of time modernism poses the challenge quote progress in the sciences demands that the conceptions of the christian teachings teaching of god creation revelation person of the incarnate word redemption be remolded and end quote louis declares quote as progress in science in parenthesis philosophy demands a new concept of the problem of god so progress in historical research gives rise to a new concept of the problem of christ and the church the reference is given there for the book from which that is cited in this view there are no fixed and constant dogmas their concept is always developing the vatican council condemned anton gunter's application of the idea of development in this sense if anyone in other quoting if anybody says that by reason of the progress of science a meaning must be given to dogmas of the church other than that which the church understood and understands them to have let them be anathema i'll read that again if anybody says that by reason of the progress of science a meaning must be given to dogmas of the church other than that which the church understood and understands them to have in the encyclical humani generous 1950 pope pius xii rejected that dogmatic relativism which would demand that dogmas should be expressed in the concepts of the philosophy ruling at any particular time and enveloped in the stream of philosophical development this cons this conception he says makes dogma a reed which is driven the ground for the immutability of dogmas lies in the divine origin of the truths which they express divine truth and then psalms psalm 116 is quoted in part here the truth of the lord remaineth forever and then mark 13 31 heaven and earth shall pass away but number two development of dogmas in the catholic sense a from the material side of dogma that is in the communication of the truths of revelation to humanity a substantial growth took place in human history until revelation reached reached its apogee see hebrews 1 1. saint gregory the great says with the progress of the times the knowledge of the spiritual fathers increased for in the science of god moses was more instructed than abraham the prophets more than moses the that quote so there is a development even in the catholic understanding of dogma with christ and the apostles general revelation concluded so here in the introduction we have our first being proclaimed and you'll see this throughout this book when there's a bold text like this and then in brackets the level of dogmatic pope pius the tenth rejected liberal protestant and modernistic doctrine of the evolution of revelation see that word evolution there just means change but uh it's it's funny when i think about uh the doctrine of evolution being rejected by pogba's the tenth puts a smile on my face i'll start again pope pius x rejected the liberal protestant and modernistic doctrine of the evolution of religion through quote new revelations unquote thus he condemned the proposition that quote revel the revelation which is the object of catholic faith was not terminated with the apostles unquote the clear teaching of holy writ and tradition is that after christ and the apostles who proclaim the message of christ no further revelation will be made christ was the fulfillment of the law of the old testament see matthew 5 17 and the absolute teacher of humanity see matthew 23 10 one is your master christ see matthew 28 20. the apostles saw in christ quote the coming of the fullness of time galatians 4 4 and regarded as their task the preservation integral and unfalsified of the heritage of faith entrusted to them by christ and then there are a bunch of references to first and second timothy the fathers indignantly repudiated the claim of the heretics to possess secret doctrines or new revelations of the holy ghost saint irenaeus and tertullian stressed against the gnostics that the full truth of revelation is contained in the doctrine of the apostles which is preserved unfalsified through the uninterrupted succession of bishops of the bishops b as to the formal side of dogma that is in the knowledge and in the ecclesial ecclesiastical proposal of revealed truth and consequently also in the public faith of the church there is a progress in parenthesis accidental development of dogmas which occurs in the following fashion one the truths which formerly were only implicitly believed are expressly proposed for belief and then there's a citation given here there was an increase in the number of articles believed explicitly since those who lived in later times some were known explicitly since to those who lived in later times some were known explicitly which were not known explicitly by those who lived before them so that's the justification of that manifest fact the truths which were formally only believed implicitly are finally expressed explicitly that's a manifest fact of history two material dogmas are raised to the status of formal dogmas that's another way that development can happen number three to facilitate general understanding and to avoid misunderstandings and distortions the ancient truths which were always believed for example the hypostatic union transubstantiation etc are formulated in and or questions formally disputed are explained and decided and heretical propositions are condemned and then there's a citation or a paraphrase perhaps of saying augustine city of god a question moved by an adversary gives an occasion for learning that's the end of that parenthesis the exposition of the dogmas in the given sense is prepared by theological science and promulgated by the teaching under the direction of the holy ghost see john 14 26 these new expositions of dogmatic truth are motivated on the one hand by the natural striving of man for deeper understanding of revealed truth and on the other hand by external influences such as the attacks arising from heresy and unbelief theological controversies advances in philosophical knowledge and historical research development of the liturgy and the general assertion of even the fathers stress the necessity of deeper research into the truths of revelation of clearing up obscure obscurities and of developing teachings of revelation see the classical testimony of saint vincent lahren but perhaps someone says well this is a citation but perhaps someone says will there then be no progress in the religion of christ certainly there should be even a great and rich progress only it must in truth be a progress in faith and not an alteration of faith for progress it is necessary that something should increase of itself for alteration however that something should change from one thing to uh to the other number five there may also be a progress in the confession of faith of the individual believer through the extension and deepening of his theological knowledge the basis for the possibility of this progress lies in the depth of the truths of the faith on the one hand and on the other hand in the varying capacity for perfection of the human reason conditions making for a true progress in the knowledge of faith by individual persons are according to the declaration of the vatican council zeal reverence and moderation zeal reverence and according to this the first vatican council those are the conditions making for a true progress in the knowledge of faith by individual persons zeal reverence and moderation so you see how zeal and moderation counter counterbalance each other to keep each other in check and of course reverence and the fear of god section six moving on the catholic truths corresponding to the purpose of the teaching authority of the church of preserving unfalsified and of infallibly interpreting the truths of revelation the primary object of the teaching office of the church is the body of immediately revealed truths and facts the infallible doctrinal power of the church extends however secondarily to all those truths and facts which are a consequence of the teaching of revelation or a presupposition of it those doctrines and truths defined by the church not as immediately revealed but as intrinsically connected with the truths of revelation so that their denial would be would undermine the revealed truths are called catholic truths catholic truths or ecclesiastical teachings to distinguish them from the divine truths or the divine doctrines of revelation these are proposed for belief in virtue of the infallibility of the church in to these catholic truths belong one theological conclusions properly so-called by these are understood religious truths which are derived from two two premises of which one is an immediately revealed truth and the other truth of natural reason since one premise is a truth of revelation theological conclusions are spoken of as being immediately or virtually revealed if however both premises are immediately revealed truths then the conclusion also must be regarded as being immediately revealed and as the object of immediate two dogmatic facts by these are understood historical facts which are not revealed but which are intrinsically connected with revealed truth for example the legality of a pope or of a general counsel or the fact of the roman episcopate of saint peter the fact that the defined text is does or does not agree with the doctrine of the catholic faith is also in a narrower sense a dogmatic fact in deciding the meaning of a text the church does not pronounce judgment on the subjective intention of the author number three the truths of reason which have not been revealed but which are intrinsically associated with a revealed truth for example those philosophic truths which are presuppositions of the acts of faith knowledge of the super sensual possibility of proofs of god the spirituality of the soul the freedom of the will these are all very interesting topics for me so those are all in parenthesis as examples of precepts presuppositions of the acts of faith or philosophic concepts in terms of which dogma is promulgated and we have examples in parenthesis person substance transubstantiation etc the church has the right and the duty for the protection of the heritage of faith of prescribing proscribing philosophic teachings which directly or indirectly endanger dogma the vatican council declares in latin eus etiem et officium divinitus habit falci dominus shiantiam sorry for the accent section 7 theological opinions theological opinions are free views on aspects of doctrines concerning faith and morals which are neither clearly neither clearly attested in revelation nor decided by the teaching authority of the church their value depends upon the reasons adduced in their favor associations with the doctrine of revelation the attitude of the church a point of doctrine ceases to be an object of free judgment when the teaching authority of the church takes an attitude which is clearly in favor of one opinion pope pius xii explains in the encyclical humanic generous 1950 when the popes in their acts intentionally pronounce a judgment on a long disputed point then it is clear to all that this according to the intention and will of these popes can no longer be open to the force to the free discussion of theologians it can no longer be open that's right it's a now it's a settled dogma section 8 the theological grades of certainty this is very interesting the highest degree of certainty appertains to the immediately revealed truths the belief due to them is based on the authority of god revealing and if the church through its teaching vouches for the fact that a truth is contained in revelation one certainty is then also based on the authority of the infallible teaching authority of the church if truths are defined by a solemn judgment of faith in parenthesis definition of the pope or of a general counsel they are de fide de those are the big big dogmas top of the top of the pack top of the bunch number two catholic truths or church doctrines on which the infallible teaching authority of the church has finally decided are to be accepted with a faith which is based on the soul authority of the church fides ecclesiastica these truths are as infallibly certain as dogmas proper so catholic truths church doctrines they're just as infallible and certain as dogmas proper meaning defeat number three a teaching proximate to faith is a doctrine which is regarded by theologians generally as a truth of revelation but which has not yet been finally promulgated as such by the continuing down the list of hierarchy here we have number four a teaching pertaining to the faith that is theologically certain is a doctrine on which the teaching authority of the church has not yet finally pronounced but whose truth is guaranteed by its intrinsic connection with the doctrine of revelation in parenthesis number five common teaching sentencia communis is doctrine which in itself belongs to the field of free opinions but which is accepted by theologians generally number six theological opinions or excuse me theological opinions of lesser grades of certainty are called probable so those are three examples they give the latin sentencia probable probabilis so those three lesser grades are more probable a probable more probable and well-founded those which are regarded as being in agreement with the conscientious what's that say consciousness of faith consciousness of faith though i'll start again those which are regarded as being in agreement with the consciousness of faith of the church are called pious opinions sentencia pia the least degree of certainty is possessed by the tolerated opinion opinio tolerata which is only weakly founded but which with regard to the doctrinal teaching of the church it must be well noted that not all the assertions of the teaching authority of the church on questions of faith and morals are infallible and consequently irrevocable only those are infallible which emanate from general counsels representing the whole episcopate and the papal decisions ex cathedra and throughout this work you'll see the references to denzinger's work on the dogmas i'm not going to cite them the ordinary and usual form of the papal teaching activity is not infallible the ordinary and usual form of the papal teaching activity is not infallible theref further the decisions of the roman congregations for example the holy office the bible commission are not infallible although the biblical commission wasn't fallible for a certain length of time in history but generally speaking they are not infallible nevertheless normally they are to be accepted with an inner ascent which is based on the high supernatural authority of the holy see the so-called silentium obsiquiosum that is the reverent silence does not generally suffice by way so you can't just sit there and listen and go no you have to give uh reference and respect to the high office from which these truths are being promulgated even if they're not infallible by way of exception the obligation of inner agreement may cease if a competent expert after a renewed scientific investigation of all grounds arrives at the positive conviction that the decision rests section 9 theological censures by a theological censor is meant the judgment which characterizes a proposition touching catholic faith or moral teaching as contrary to faith or at least as doubtful it may if it be pronounced by the teaching authority of the church it is an authoritative or judicial judgment if it be pronounced by theological science it is a private doctrinal judgment the usual censures are the following a heretical proposition this signifies that the proposition is opposed to a formal dogma a proposition proximate to heresy which signifies that the proposition is opposed to a truth which is proximate to the faith a proposition savoring of or suspect of heresy an erroneous proposition i.e opposed to a truth which is proposed by the church as a truth intrinsically connected with the revealed truth or opposed to the common teaching of theologians continuing a false proposition i.e contradicting a dogmatic fact a termarius proposition i.e deviating without reason from the general teaching a proposition offensive to pious ears i.e offensive to religious feeling a proposition badly expressed i.e subject to misunderstanding by reason of its method of expression a captchas proposition i.e represent reprehensible because of its intentional ambiguity a proposition exciting scandal finally i think that's self-evident what a proposition exciting scandal as to the form of the centers a distinction is made between damnatio spezialis by which a sensor is attached to an individual proposition and the damnatio in global which censures in which censures are imposed on a series of propositions it's coming up to 50 minutes just about almost an hour gonna leave it there next time hopefully next sunday we'll jump into part one the unity of god is existence in nature section one the existence of god the natural nobility of the existence of god very very exciting stuff i can't wait to get into it i love this book i love the catholic church and thanks for joining me take care of yourselves and we'll talk take care of yourselves and we'll talk soon